Cases reported "Retinitis"

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1/353. bartonella henselae infection associated with peripapillary angioma, branch retinal artery occlusion, and severe vision loss.

    PURPOSE: To report atypical clinical features of bartonella henselae neuroretinitis treated with combination antibiotics. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 20-year-old man with a positive B. henselae titer developed a unilateral neuroretinitis, a large peripapillary angiomatous lesion, branch artery occlusion with ischemic maculopathy, and vision loss that failed to improve with clindamycin. Treatment with doxycycline and rifampin led to rapid clinical improvement. The severe vision loss in this case is atypical. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular findings associated with B. henselae infection may include retinal angiomatous lesion and branch retinal artery occlusion. doxycycline and rifampin were successful in treating the infection. ( info)

2/353. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in europe.

    BACKGROUND: Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis is thought to be caused by a solitary helminth migrating within the subretinal space. Laser photocoagulation of the located worm is the preferred mode of therapy. methods: We describe the clinical and electrophysiological features of a case of a 15-year-old Caucasian male with a longstanding diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN), in whom two worms were seen in the fundus examination. Focal photocoagulation of the worms was applied as treatment. RESULTS: No signs of inflammation could be seen after treatment. Three months later, the patient was doing well. Follow-up examination 4 years later revealed an unchanged fundus appearance in the affected eye, with no evidence of progression of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: If a worm is identified in DUSN, focal laser treatment of the located area is the treatment of choice, regardless of whether fundus changes suggest late stages of the disease. However, the eye of the patient should be thoroughly examined to rule out the presence of more than one worm that might cause the failure of therapy. ( info)

3/353. Presumed ocular bartonellosis.

    BACKGROUND: The spectrum of diseases caused by bartonella henselae continues to expand and ocular involvement during this infection is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. methods: The clinical features and visual prognosis for 13 patients with intraocular inflammatory disease and laboratory evidence of bartonellosis were investigated. There were nine patients with neuroretinitis and four with panuveitis with positive antibody titres against B henselae determined by an enzyme immunoassay (IgG exceeding 1:900 and/or IgM exceeding 1:250). RESULTS: Positive IgG levels were found for eight patients and positive IgM levels for five. Despite animal exposure of 10 patients, only two (IgG positive) cases had systemic symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Pathological fluorescein leakage of the optic disc was observed in all affected eyes. At 6 months' follow up, 3/18 (17%) affected eyes had a visual acuity of less than 20/100, owing to optic disc atrophy and cystoid macular oedema. 12 patients (17 eyes) were treated with antibiotics; visual acuity improved two or more Snellen lines for 9/17 (53%) eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of B henselae infection should be considered in patients with neuroretinitis and panuveitis (especially in cases with associated optic nerve involvement) even in the absence of systemic symptoms typical for cat scratch disease. ( info)

4/353. Conservative management of documented neuroretinitis in cat scratch disease associated with bartonella henselae infection.

    BACKGROUND: bartonella henselae has been identified as the causative agent of the neuroretinitis associated with cat scratch disease (CSD). Immunofluorescent antibody tests with good sensitivity and specificity are available to aid in diagnosis. Despite diagnostic advances, optimal management remains controversial. We present a case of documented B. henselae macular neuroretinitis managed without antibiotics and discuss antibiotic use in this condition. methods: We examined a young woman with macular neuroretinitis and established a diagnosis of CSD. Management consisted of a review of the literature, followed by educating her about the condition and close observation. We documented the course of her disease. RESULTS: We diagnosed neuroretinitis associated with B. henselae infection based on immunofluorescent antibody titres and clinical presentation. Our patient's neuroretinitis resolved promptly without antibiotic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Macular neuroretinitis in CSD can be satisfactorily diagnosed with the use of fluorescent antibodies in the appropriate clinical setting. Optimal treatment for the disease has not been established and observation combined with patient education remains an appropriate option. The self-limited nature of the disease implies that treatment studies not using controls must be interpreted with great caution. Adverse drug reactions and other iatrogenic complications can be reduced by limiting antibiotic use in settings where a meaningful treatment benefit has not been established. ( info)

5/353. Progression of cytomegalovirus retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report.

    We report an AIDS patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis that developed from an early minor lesion and progressed to extended involvement of the retina and severe deterioration of vision due to poor compliance with ganciclovir treatment. A 33-year-old man was known to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for eight months. The patient had no complaint of visual symptoms. A routine eye examination revealed his visual acuity to be 6/6 in both eyes. The dilated eye fundus examination using indirect ophthalmoscopy disclosed a localized white yellowish granular lesion in the peripheral retina of the right eye and a completely normal left eye. CMV retinitis with initial manifestation in the right eye was diagnosed. Due to incomplete treatment with ganciclovir, the retinal lesion rapidly enlarged and extended to the posterior pole, with eventual destruction of the nerve fiber layer and optic disc. The visual acuity of right eye dropped from 6/6 to 1/60 within six months. This case report indicates the importance of early, dilated eye fundus examination and recognition of early CMV retinitis in order to salvage visual function in AIDS patients. Completion of the anti-CMV treatment course in halting the progression of CMV retinitis is also emphasized. ( info)

6/353. bk virus as the cause of meningoencephalitis, retinitis and nephritis in a patient with AIDS.

    BACKGROUND: The two widely spread human polyomaviruses, bk virus (BKV) and jc virus (JCV) establish latency in the urinary tract, and can be reactivated in AIDS. JCV might cause progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, but although up to 60% of AIDS patients excrete BKV in the urine there have been few reports of BKV-related renal and/or neurological disease in AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To report on an AIDS patient with progressive renal and neurological symptoms involving the retina. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Venhalsan, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, sweden. methods: The brain, eye tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed by nested PCR for polyoma-virus dna. Macroscopical and microscopical examination were performed of the kidney and brain post mortem. Immunohistochemical stainings for the two BKV proteins, the VP1 and the agnoprotein, were performed on autopsy material and virus infected tissue culture cells. RESULTS: BKV could be demonstrated in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, eye tissues, kidneys and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: During 6 years, approximately 400 cerebrospinal fluid samples from immunosuppressed individuals with neurological symptoms have been investigated by PCR for the presence of polyomaviruses. BKV dna has, so far, only been found in the case reported here. Although reports of BKV infections in the nervous system are rare, there is now evidence for its occurrence in immunocompromised patients and the diagnosis should be considered in such patients with neurological symptoms and signs of renal disease. The diagnosis is simple to verify and is important to establish. ( info)

7/353. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis.

    BACKGROUND: Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) is an inflammatory disorder of the retina thought to be caused by a motile worm. It initially presents with unilateral recurring crops of gray-white retinal lesions and mild to severe inflammation. Over a period of months, diffuse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) changes, arteriolar attenuation, and optic atrophy will develop. In approximately 25% of cases, a worm is visualized during the eye examination. Laser treatment to kill the worm is the only reliable way to halt progression of this disease. methods: The following case report presents a 9-year-old girl with unilateral vision loss. RESULTS: Clinical observation and several blood tests to rule out systemic diseases resulted in a diagnosis of DUSN. Although a worm was not visualized, laser treatment of its suspected location resulted in recovery of some vision. CONCLUSIONS: DUSN is often diagnosed by clinical presentation alone, because a worm may not be visualized. An appropriate initial work-up and timely initiation of laser treatment are essential to preservation of vision. ( info)

8/353. Tuberculous neuroretinitis.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe a patient with tuberculous neuroretinitis. MATERIALS AND methods: Retrospective case report. RESULTS: We describe a 43-year-old otherwise asymptomatic woman with a known exposure to tuberculosis who had unilateral optic disc edema and a partial macular star (neuroretinitis). This was followed approximately 1 year later by the development of an exudative retinal detachment in the setting of bilateral multifocal choroiditis. Laboratory testing revealed a marked positive cutaneous reaction to purified protein derivative (PPD). Treatment with antituberculosis medicine alone resulted in prompt resolution of the choroidal infiltrates and complete flattening of the exudative detachment. CONCLUSIONS: tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with neuroretinitis. ( info)

9/353. Cat-scratch neuroretinitis.

    BACKGROUND: cat-scratch disease is a subacute regional lymphadenitis, usually preceded by a history of a cat scratch or exposure to kittens. The disease is caused by bartonella henselae, and possibly bartonella quintana, pleomorphic gram-negative rods formerly known as Rochalimaea henselae and Rochalimaea quintana. Ocular involvement is rare and typically manifests as either Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome or neuroretinitis. patients with neuroretinitis resulting from cat-scratch disease may be asymptomatic or experience mild-to-severe vision loss. The clinical features, angiographic appearance, differential diagnosis, and management of cat-scratch neuroretinitis are discussed. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old white woman reported to the eye clinic with painless, decreased vision in the right eye. A diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis was made on the basis of the history of cat scratch, clinical appearance, and angiographic findings. Treatment with oral ciprofloxacin restored vision to normal in 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: Painless vision loss associated with optic nerve swelling and macular star exudate should alert suspicion of systemic disease. Additional findings--including positive history of a cat scratch, lymphadenopathy, and flu-like symptoms--may indicate bartonella henselae or bartonella quintana infection. While treatment remains controversial, appropriate serology testing may aid in the diagnosis and management of the underlying infection. ( info)

10/353. Diffuse bilateral subacute neuroretinitis: first patient with documented nematodes in both eyes.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the first patient with documented evidence of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) in both eyes. methods: A 10-year-old healthy Brazilian girl was first seen with signs of late-stage DUSN in both eyes. A careful search for a nematode was performed in each eye. RESULTS: A motile 550- to 660-microm nematode was found in the inferotemporal retina of the left eye. A similar-sized motile nematode was found in the superotemporal retina of the right eye. Both nematodes were treated with argon green laser applications with bilateral improvement of visual function. CONCLUSION: Although most patients with DUSN do not develop the disease in the fellow eye, this case demonstrates that DUSN can occasionally affect both eyes. ( info)
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