Cases reported "retroviridae infections"

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1/58. Evidence of retroviral involvement in an Italian patient with Ofuji's disease.

    Ofuji's disease, also known as 'eosinophilic pustular folliculitis', is a rare inflammatory skin disorder of unknown aetiology, which affects mostly adult Japanese males. Only few Caucasian patients have been described so far. We report the case of a 44-year-old Italian woman with Ofuji's disease who had circulating antibodies against the recombinant envelope glycoprotein (Rgp46I) of HTLV-1. By means of a very sensitive nested PCR, the tax region of HTLV-1, but not other regions, was found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our observations suggest that a retrovirus, closely related to HTLV but not yet identified, could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease in this patient. ( info)

2/58. Distinguishing immunosilent AIDS from the acute retroviral syndrome in a frequent blood donor.

    BACKGROUND: There are seven reports of "immunosilent AIDS" in which there was a lack of development of anti-hiv for more than 6 months. Thus, when a frequent blood donor presented with clinical findings highly suggestive of overt AIDS, there was concern that he may have had a prolonged immunosilent infection. CASE REPORT: A 24-year-old man who had donated blood six times in the previous year was diagnosed as having AIDS; he presented with fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and oral candidiasis. The anti-hiv enzyme immunoassay was positive, the Western blot was indeterminate (gp160 only), the CD4 count was 174 per mL, the hiv polymerase chain reaction was positive (2.8 x 10(6) copies/mL), and the hiv p24 antigen assay was positive. Twelve components from previous donations had been transfused, and 2 units of fresh-frozen plasma were still in inventory. Repeat donor testing 57 days after donation indicated seroconversion with a positive anti-hiv enzyme immunoassay, a positive Western blot, a negative hiv p24 antigen assay, and a positive test for hiv by polymerase chain reaction (89,000 copies/mL). Both units of fresh-frozen plasma tested negative for hiv by polymerase chain reaction. Four transfusion recipients had died, and the remaining eight are anti-hiv negative with >6 months' follow-up. CONCLUSION: The donor had an unusually severe acute retroviral syndrome and presented with findings that were difficult to distinguish from overt AIDS. ( info)

3/58. Large granular lymphocytosis terminating in a polymorphous B-lymphocytic proliferation after low-dose cyclophosphamide therapy: a case report with necropsy findings.

    A 70-year-old man presented with clonal large granular lymphocytosis of T-suppressor/cytotoxic immunophenotype, neutropenia, paraproteinemia, and proneness to infection. The patient became severely leukopenic during 14 days of chemotherapy with low-dose cyclophosphamide, and remained so after discontinuation of the drug. Clinically, he was thought to have prolonged chemotherapy-induced marrow hypoplasia. At death, 16 days after the last dose of chemotherapy, autopsy confirmed bone marrow hypoplasia and revealed that well-differentiated, polymorphous, and (immunophenotypically and genotypically) polyclonal b-lymphocytes predominated in normal hematopoietic and lymphoid organs. A similar lymphoid infiltrate was intimately associated with multiple ulcers and smooth muscle necrosis in the stomach. These terminal findings resemble B-lymphoproliferative conditions described in certain forms of immune deficiency. ( info)

4/58. Kaposi's sarcoma with thrombocytopenia in a heterosexual Asian Indian male.

    A 45-year-old heterosexual male patient with retroviral disease since 12 years presented with hyperpigmented lesions, misdiagnosed initially as purpura due to an associated thrombocytopenia, but was biopsy proven to be Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). bone marrow examination revealed excess megakaryocytes. Low CD4 count and absence of platelet specific IgG reduced the likelihood of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). However after 6 weeks of antiretroviral therapy the patient's lesions have reduced and platelet counts are improving, possibly suggesting a sequestration thrombocytopenia in the abnormal tumor vessels of KS. ( info)

5/58. erythema elevatum diutinum and pre-AIDS.

    erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a chronic disease with symmetrical persistent erythematous nodules and plaques primarily in an acral distribution. EED is often associated with infections, especially of streptococcals. An immunological reaction has been proposed as pathogenetic mechanism. We describe a patient, who developed EED secondary to a LAV/HTLV III positive lymphadenopathy syndrome. Immunological investigation of a skin lesion and a lymph node biopsy is described. ( info)

6/58. Pulmonary infection in human immunodeficiency disease: viral pulmonary infections.

    Viral pneumonitides are among the known pulmonary complications of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis is the most frequently recognized viral infection involving the lung. Although CMV may occasionally be the sole pathogen found to be responsible for severe pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in most cases, its role in causing pulmonary disease is less clear, primarily because of the propensity to infect with a variety of other copathogens. CMV pneumonitis has been difficult to diagnose during life, although techniques utilizing in situ dna hybridization or monoclonal antibodies for detection of the virus may improve the diagnostic yield of less invasive procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage. Pneumonitis due to herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster, and respiratory syncytial virus have occasionally been reported in AIDS patients, and are of practical importance because of the availability of effective treatment. The role of influenza and adenoviruses in causing hiv-related pulmonary complications is unknown, but could be of importance during outbreaks of these infections. Finally, data from several studies now suggest that Epstein-Barr virus or hiv itself or both have a role in the pneumonitis. Further study in this area could provide information leading to more effective management of this common complication of childhood AIDS. ( info)

7/58. Retroviruses and their play-pals.

    A 28-year-old man with a previous history of Neissena infection presented with diminished vision, disc swelling, and panuveitis. serologic tests revealed positive titers for both hiv and syphilis. Current epidemiology and treatment of such cases are discussed. ( info)

8/58. Acute AIDS retrovirus infection. Definition of a clinical illness associated with seroconversion.

    In the course of a prospective immunoepidemiological study of homosexual men in Sydney, seroconversion to the AIDS-associated retrovirus (ARV) was observed in 12 subjects. review of the clinical files defined an acute infectious-mononucleosis-like illness in 11 subjects. The illness was of sudden onset, lasted from 3 to 14 days, and was associated with fevers, sweats, malaise, lethargy, anorexia, nausea, myalgia, arthralgia, headaches, sore throat, diarrhoea, generalised lymphadenopathy, a macular erythematous truncal eruption, and thrombocytopenia. In 1 subject an incubation period of 6 days after presumed exposure to ARV was determined and in 3 subjects seroconversion took place 19, 32, and 56 days after onset. Comparison of T-cell subsets before and after the acute illness showed inversion of T4:T8 ratio in 8 subjects, due to increased numbers of circulating T8 cells. These findings support the notion of an acute clinical, immunological, and serological response to infection with ARV which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mononucleosis-like syndromes in groups at high risk for the development of AIDS. ( info)

9/58. Postnatal transmission of AIDS-associated retrovirus from mother to infant.

    The third child of a previously healthy woman was delivered by caesarean section. Because of intraoperative blood loss, a blood transfusion was given after the delivery. The baby was breast-fed for 6 weeks. One unit of blood came from a male in whom the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed 13 months later. On recall, the mother proved to have lymphadenopathy, serum antibody to the AIDS virus, and a reduced T4/T8 ratio. The infant, who failed two thrive and had atopic eczema from 3 months, has likewise proved to have antibody to the AIDS virus. Since his mother was transfused after his birth, he is presumed to have been infected via breast milk or by way of some other form of close contact with his mother. ( info)

10/58. adult T-cell leukemia in two siblings. Acute crisis of smoldering disease in one patient.

    Two cases of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-positive adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in brother and sister are presented. Six of 15 members of this family were seropositive for antibodies for ATL-associated antigens (ATLA). The sister of the ATL patient developed overt ATL after 5 years and 8 months of smoldering ATL. Immunologic examinations during the smoldering phase were normal except for negative skin tests for purified protein derivative. Factors leading to the induction of ATL among HTLV carriers remain to be studied. ( info)
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