Cases reported "rubulavirus infections"

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1/4. Fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia concomitant with chlamydia pneumoniae and parainfluenza virus 4 infection.

    CONTEXT: Cases of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia need to be investigated for highly contagious viral causes. While not all hemorrhagic pneumonias are caused by very contagious agents, the etiology must be correctly determined in order to administer appropriate patient care. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether chlamydia, paramyxovirus, or mycoplasma was the causative agent in a case of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia, and to evaluate the possibility that this was the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in illinois. DESIGN: Nonroutine virological and molecular analyses were performed on lung tissue taken during an unrestricted autopsy of a patient who died in 2002. SETTING AND PATIENT: An elderly, male, chicago-area resident with a 3-week history of nonspecific, mild upper respiratory tract infection was admitted for hospital treatment of the respiratory infection and viral myositis without cardiac involvement. The patient became febrile, hypoxic, developed hemorrhagic pneumonia, and died. Because he had proven exposure to mice and had developed hemorrhagic pneumonia, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was suspected as the cause of death. mice known to carry hantaviruses live in illinois, including the chicago area. INTERVENTIONS: Gatifloxacin and heparin anticoagulation were initiated because community-acquired pneumonia and pulmonary embolism were considered likely etiologies for an acute exacerbation of hypoxemia. RESULTS: Two respiratory pathogens were isolated and identified: chlamydia pneumoniae and human parainfluenza virus 4a. CONCLUSIONS: A mixed (polymicrobial) infection contributed to the patient's death. hemorrhage was likely a result of anticoagulation therapy superimposed on lung tissues damaged by pneumonia. The uncommon nature of this case and the pathogens involved underscore the challenges in infection control and clinical evaluation that hospitals will face when confronted with possibly new and potentially deadly communicable diseases. ( info)

2/4. sudden infant death syndrome due to parainfluenza virus 2 associated with hemophagocytic syndrome.

    We report a child with sudden infant death Syndrome (SIDS), aged 16 months. The histological findings of tonsils, spleen, and bone marrow revealed many hemophagocytic cells. Parainfluenza virus type 2 (PIV2) was cultured in the nasopharynx and detected by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in liver tissue and bone marrow. His laboratory data of elevated level of ferritin and IL-6 suggested hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). It is suspected that PIV2 infection in infants is a risk factor for SIDS. ( info)

3/4. Microarray detection of human parainfluenzavirus 4 infection associated with respiratory failure in an immunocompetent adult.

    A pan-viral dna microarray, the Virochip (University of california, san francisco), was used to detect human parainfluenzavirus 4 (HPIV-4) infection in an immunocompetent adult presenting with a life-threatening acute respiratory illness. The virus was identified in an endotracheal aspirate specimen, and the microarray results were confirmed by specific polymerase chain reaction and serological analysis for HPIV-4. Conventional clinical laboratory testing using an extensive panel of microbiological tests failed to yield a diagnosis. This case suggests that the potential severity of disease caused by HPIV-4 in adults may be greater than previously appreciated and illustrates the clinical utility of a microarray for broad-based viral pathogen screening. ( info)

4/4. Parainfluenza virus type 4 infections in pediatric patients.

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of parainfluenza virus type 4 infections in pediatric patients. methods: hospital records of 13 patients from whom parainfluenza virus type 4 was isolated were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Parainfluenza virus type 4 infection was associated with upper respiratory tract disease, severe lower respiratory tract disease requiring hospitalization in 10 of 13 patients and aseptic meningitis. Nine of the 10 hospitalized patients were < 24 months old (mean age, 8.3 months) and required hospitalization for 4 to 25 days (mean, 5.5 days). CONCLUSIONS: Serious illnesses associated with parainfluenza virus type 4 infections are more common than previously recognized. ( info)

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