Cases reported "seizures"

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1/2518. Transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature: the question of non-convulsive seizure paralysis.

    Eleven patients with transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature are described. paralysis could involve face or leg alone, face and hand, or face, arm and leg. The duration varied from two minutes to one day. Four patients had brain tumors, six probably had brain infarcts, and one a degenerative process. The differential diagnosis included TIAs, migraine accompaniments, and seizures. In the absence of good evidence for the first two, the cases are discussed from the standpoint of possibly representing nonconvulsive seizure paralysis (ictal paralysis, inhibitory seizure paralysis or somatic inhibitory seizure). Because of the difficulty in defining seizures as well as TIAs and migraine in their atypical variations, a firm conclusion concerning the mechanisms of the spells was not attained. Two cases of the hypertensive amaurosis-seizure syndrome have been added as further examples of ictal deficits. ( info)

2/2518. The contribution of life events to pseudoseizure occurrence in adults.

    life events associated with pseudoseizures were studied in 58 adults. Recent precipitants were diverse and triggered affect that was usually related to current life problems or remote trauma. Four patterns of remote and recent events were found, two related to trauma and two to inadequate emotional expression. When evaluating pseudoseizure precipitants, clinicians should consider the meaning of recent events in light of remote trauma, current life context, and dysfunctional familial patterns of handling affect. ( info)

3/2518. Extrapontine myelinolysis in a nine-year-old child.

    Extrapontine myelinolysis in the pediatric age group is very rare. We report a nine-year-old girl with the classical clinical syndrome of pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis following liver trauma due to a traffic accident. She was referred to our hospital for further investigation of convulsions due to severe postoperative hyponatremia. She had no hypoxic event or other identifiable cause for the neurological symptoms. Neurological deterioration began about two days after correction of hyponatremia and followed a period of temporary improvement in hyponatremic encephalopathy. diagnosis of extrapontine myelinolysis was confirmed with the identification of typical features on magnetic resonance imaging. The rapid correction of hyponatremia seemed the most likely cause since other biochemical tests including liver function tests were all within normal ranges. The long term clinical outcome was good. It is important to carefully monitor the rate of correction in electrolyte disturbances, and to consider the individual variation in response to therapy. ( info)

4/2518. Serial electroencephalographic findings in patients with MELAS.

    To clarify the electroencephalographic characteristics of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), the medical records and electroencephalograms of six patients with MELAS and two of their relatives with MELA (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, and lactic acidosis, without strokelike episodes) were retrospectively reviewed. All have a point mutation in the mitochondrial dna at nucleotide position 3243. The electroencephalograms (n = 79) were divided into four groups according to the time relation to the strokelike episode: (1) before the first strokelike episode, (2) within 5 days after the strokelike episode (acute stage), (3) between 6 days and 1 month after the strokelike episode (subacute stage), and (4) more than 1 month after the strokelike episode (chronic stage). In the acute stage, 10 of the 11 electroencephalograms (9 strokelike episodes in four patients) revealed focal high-voltage delta waves with polyspikes (FHDPS), which were recognized as ictal electroencephalogram. Ictal events during FHDPS included focal clonic or myoclonic seizure and migrainous headache. In the subacute and chronic stages, focal spikes or sharp waves and 14- and 6-Hz positive bursts were frequently recorded. The authors' results suggest that FHDPSs present a reliable and accurate indicator of a strokelike episode in patients with MELAS. ( info)

5/2518. stroke and seizures as the presenting signs of pediatric hiv infection.

    The authors report two pediatric patients with definite human immunodeficiency virus infection whose initial presentation was stroke and seizure. The first patient was a 3-year-old female who developed acute hemiparesis as the first manifestation. The other, a 2-month-old infant, had focal seizures secondary to cerebral infarction. Investigations revealed ischemic infarction of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and internal capsule in the first patient and cerebral cortex in the second. Further investigations failed to demonstrate any other causes of these cerebral infarctions. Opportunistic infection of the central nervous system was not documented. The authors emphasize that cerebrovascular accident may be the initial presentation in human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Human immunodeficiency virus infection must be included in the differential diagnosis, and testing for the disease is mandatory in the investigation of stroke in any child who is at risk of having this infection. ( info)

6/2518. Dacrystic seizures reconsidered.

    Ictal lachrymation has not been reported in children as a main seizure manifestation. We report an infant with tuberous sclerosis who presented with seizures characterised by lachrymation without apparent emotional change associated with a left posterior temporal epileptic focus. We discuss the pathophysiological implications, and propose a clinically orientated classification of crying seizures. ( info)

7/2518. MR and CT imaging in the Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome. Report of three cases and contribution to pathogenesis and differential diagnosis.

    Cerebral hemiatrophy or Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a condition characterized by seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiplegia or hemiparesis, and mental retardation. These findings are due to cerebral injury that may occur early in life or in utero. The radiological features are unilateral loss of cerebral volume and associated compensatory bone alterations in the calvarium, like thickening, hyperpneumatization of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid cells and elevation of the petrous ridge. The authors describe three cases. Classical findings of the syndrome are present in variable degrees according to the extent of the brain injury. Pathogenesis is commented. ( info)

8/2518. Suspected carbamazepine-induced hepatotoxicity.

    carbamazepine is a potent anticonvulsant agent with proven efficacy in the treatment of partial and tonic-clonic seizures. An epileptic child treated with therapeutic dosages of carbamazepine developed severe hepatitis and hepatic insufficiency. She had a positive response to withdrawal of the drug and administration of corticosteroids. The Roussel UCLAF method for estimating causality of the adverse event was applied for an acute hepatocellular problem, with a final score of 8. This method has advantages over other tools because it involves many clinical factors that give additional guides to clinicians in patients with liver injury, but it must be adapted for adverse events in the pediatric population. ( info)

9/2518. seizures induced by frustration and despair due to unresolved moral and political issues: a rare case of reflex epilepsy.

    We present a case of reflex-induced simple partial seizures, triggered by feelings of frustration, anger and despair. Such emotions were provoked by pondering over complex national and international, political and moral issues. The present case may suggest that activation of right temporal networks may mediate negative and adverse emotions induced by preoccupation with agitating, controversial issues. ( info)

10/2518. Henoch-Schonlein purpura: a case report.

    A case of Henoch-Schonlein purpura with the rare complications of facial and scalp oedema, followed by neurological complications manifesting as focal convulsions with transient conjugate eye deviation and cortical blindness, is described. ( info)
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