Cases reported "serositis"

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1/33. Serosal complications of single-agent low-dose methotrexate used in gestational trophoblastic diseases: first reported case of methotrexate-induced peritonitis.

    methotrexate (MTX) is a folate antagonist widely used both as an anticancer drug and as an immunosupressant. Administration of an 8-day methotrexate and folinic acid regime may be associated with pleuritic chest pain and pneumonitis. We have reviewed the toxicity seen in 168 consecutive patients treated with low-dose MTX for persistent trophoblastic disease. Twenty-five per cent of patients developed serosal symptoms, pleurisy was the commonest complaint. The majority of patients had mild to moderate symptoms which were controlled with simple analgesia and did not necessitate a change in treatment; 11.9% had severe symptoms which necessitated a change in treatment. One patient developed a pericardial effusion and a second patient developed severe reversible peritoneal irritation. The possible aetiology and pathophysiology of methotrexate-induced serosal toxicity is discussed. ( info)

2/33. Acute abdomen and lupus enteritis: thrombocytopenia and pneumatosis intestinalis as indicators for surgery.

    Bowel symptoms occur often in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but enteric complications in patients on steroid therapy are rare. We report a case of a 14-year-old Mexican girl with SLE on high-dose steroid therapy complicated by abdominal vasculitis and small bowel perforation. Accompanying this serious complication were thrombocytopenia and radiographic changes of pneumatosis intestinalis. These findings suggested necrotizing enteritis and prompted urgent surgery. Four jejunal perforations, pneumatosis intestinalis, and submucosal vasculitis were present in the resected specimen. Persistent SLE activity responded to cyclophosphamide, which is indicated in patients with digestive symptoms who fail to respond to high-dose steroids. ( info)

3/33. intestinal pseudo-obstruction in systemic lupus erythematosus: an uncommon but important clinical manifestation.

    OBJECTIVES: To document intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IpsO) as a recognised clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a possible new clinical entity with its apparent association with ureterohydronephrosis. METHODOLOGY: We report six lupus patients who presented with IpsO and review 12 other cases from an English literature search. IpsO is defined as the presence of clinical features suggestive of intestinal obstruction but without organic obstruction, namely absence of bowel sounds, presence of multiple fluid levels on plain abdominal x-rays and exclusion of organic obstruction by imaging or surgical procedure. Other clinical characteristics related to the underlying lupus, serological and histological findings, treatment modalities and outcomes of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS: All 18 patients fulfilled the ACR revised classification criteria for SLE. None showed any clinical features of scleroderma or overlap syndrome. The mean age of onset of IpsO was 29.0 (15-47) y. The female to male ratio was 16:2. Nine patients had IpsO as the initial presentation of their underlying lupus. Coexisting lupus involvement of other organ systems included glomerulonephritis (n=7), thrombocytopenia (n=5) and cerebral lupus (n=3). The serology data and autoantibody profile of some of the previously reported patients were incomplete. In our series, anti-Ro antibody was positive in 5/6 while anti-RNP was found in 1/6 patients only. All our patients had active lupus serology at presentation. 17/18 patients required the use of high dose systemic corticosteroid therapy while one patient responded to topical adrenocorticotrophin hormone treatment. Response was good and was observed early after commencement. azathioprine was used as maintenance therapy in 6/18 patients with good effects. An apparent association with the presence of bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was found in 12/18 patients. These patients presented with dysuria without positive bacterial culture though features of chronic interstitial cystitis were not invariably found in these patients. CONCLUSION: IpsO is an uncommon but important manifestation of SLE. The underlying pathology is not fully understood but it may be related to immune complex deposition. The finding of coexisting ureterohydronephrosis suggests that there may also be a central smooth muscle motility problem of neuropathic or myogenic pathophysiology which may or may not be secondary to vasculitis. Early recognition and treatment of IpsO in SLE is important. ( info)

4/33. Polyserositis as a rare component of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II.

    Polyglandular autoimmune (PGA) syndromes (types I and II) may affect various endocrine and non-endocrine organs in the body. In the commoner PGA type II, primary adrenal insufficiency, autoimmune thyroid disease and type I diabetes mellitus are the most frequent manifestations. serositis with pericardial or pleural involvement is not a well known component of the disease. Here, we report a 21-year-old man who first presented with a pleuropericardial effusion and Graves' disease, and who then developed type I diabetes mellitus. ( info)

5/33. Gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and can be due to primary gastrointestinal disorders, complications of therapy or SLE itself. In this case report, we describe three different presentations and causes of gastrointestinal complaints in patients with SLE. Diagnostic and management problems are discussed. ( info)

6/33. Filgrastim treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (M7) relapse after allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation resulting in both graft-versus-leukemia effect with cytogenetic remission and chronic graft-versus-host disease manifesting as polyserositis and subsequent bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia.

    Filgrastim (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) has recently been reported to successfully treat patients with leukemic relapse after allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation (PSCT). However, the majority of the patients who responded also developed graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Polyserositis as a manifestation of GVHD is a rare phenomenon. We report the first case of polyserositis following the use of filgrastim to treat a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (M7), who had relapsed after an initially successful allogeneic PSCT. The polyserositis manifested with effusions and was initially controlled with high doses of steroids and pericardial stripping; however, after a quiescent period the patient eventually developed bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia that required additional immunosuppressive therapy. We review the literature on GVHD-associated polyserositis and offer potential explanations for its pathogenesis. ( info)

7/33. EBV-associated nasal-type T/natural killer cell lymphoma presenting with polyserositis and rhabdomyolysis.

    Nasal-type T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma, a distinct clinicopathological entity is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus which shows an aggressive course. We present a CD56 nasal-type T/(NK)-cell lymphoma case with systemic manifestations of rhabdomyolysis and polyserositis who died of multiorgan failure shortly after his admission to hospital in spite of adequate chemotherapy and supportive care. ( info)

8/33. Case report: distinctive immune abnormalities in a patient with procainamide-induced lupus and serositis.

    To gain insight into the immunopathogenesis of drug-induced autoimmune disorders, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin distributions and cytokine levels were monitored in the peripheral blood and pleural fluid of a patient with procainamide-induced lupus and pleural effusion. Approximately 80% of the B cells in both compartments were CD5 compared to 10% to 25% in normal adults. CD4/CD8 ratio and percentage CD4 were normal in peripheral blood. serum levels of IgG (particularly IgG2), IL-6, and soluble IL-2R were slightly elevated, and those of IgA were significantly elevated compared to normal controls. Analysis of the pleural effusion revealed an increased CD4/CD8 ratio because of an increased percentage of CD4 CD29 helper memory T cells, lack of expression of the resting B-cell marker CD21, immune complex deposition and complement consumption, increased relative levels of ANA, abnormally high levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-2R, and detectable levels of IL-1b, IFN-g and TNF-a. These observations provide evidence for the involvement of CD5 B cells and differential helper T-cell activity in procainamide-induced lupus and for an association between local lymphocyte activation and organ pathology. ( info)

9/33. pericarditis and polyserositis as a side effect of clozapine in an adolescent girl.

    A case report describes an adolescent girl with a treatment-resistant bipolar disorder, who developed pericarditis and polyserositis while being treated with clozapine. The sparse literature about this rare, severe side effect of clozapine is discussed. Clinical recommendations with regard to monitoring are given. If myocarditis/polyserositis occurs, clozapine has to be discontinued immediately. ( info)

10/33. Atypical systemic lupus erythematosus or Castleman's disease.

    collagen vascular diseases and malignancies have common systemic and immune features. We report a case of a 21 year old female patient with constitutional symptoms, polyserositis, spontaneous rupture of the spleen, leukocytoclastic vasculitis and acute renal failure. The tentative diagnosis of SLE was made because she developed a positive antinuclear factor (1/640), with anti-SSA antibodies and a positive lupus anticoagulans. Two months later a cervical lymphadenopathy occurred while recieving treatment with prednisolone. A lymph node biopsy revealed morphologic features of a SLE, similar to those observed in multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). MCD is a distinct type of a lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. The difficulties in differential diagnosis of these two diseases are discussed. ( info)
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