Cases reported "serotonin syndrome"

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1/67. serotonin syndrome in a child after a single dose of fluvoxamine.

    serotonin syndrome, a potentially fatal iatrogenic complication of psychopharmacologic therapy, is most commonly reported with combinations of serotonergic medications. serotonin syndrome is characterized by alterations in cognition, behavior, autonomic, and central nervous system function as a result of increased postsynaptic serotonin receptor agonism. We present the first reported case of serotonin syndrome after a single dose of fluvoxamine in a pediatric patient after ingestion of a single supratherapeutic dose of fluvoxamine. ( info)

2/67. Fatal combined intoxication with new antidepressants. Human cases and an experimental study of postmortem moclobemide redistribution.

    Three cases are presented in which death was caused by suicidal intoxication with moclobemide in combination with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Both antidepressant drug types are considered to be relatively safe with regard to lethal overdose. However, the combination may cause the serotonin syndrome, a condition with a high mortality rate. In one of the cases, there was clinical information consistent with the serotonin syndrome, in the two other cases, there was no information of the clinical course. Postmortem redistribution of the selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor moclobemide was investigated in a rat model. Postmortem concentrations in blood from the vena cava and the heart were found to be in good accordance with antemortem concentrations. Postmortem concentrations in vitreous humour and various tissues were also measured. The apparent volume of distribution was calculated to be 0.95 /- 0.10 l/kg, which is in the same range as that reported in man. ( info)

3/67. serotonin syndrome in a child associated with erythromycin and sertraline.

    serotonin syndrome is an uncommon, serious adverse reaction that is usually associated with the interaction of two or more serotonergic agents. A 12-year-old boy receiving sertraline developed the syndrome after erythromycin was added to his regimen. The proposed mechanism involves erythromycin inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition of sertraline metabolism, accumulation of the drug, and precipitation of the syndrome. It is important for clinicians to consider both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions to minimize the risk of the reaction. ( info)

4/67. serotonin syndrome caused by overdose with paroxetine and moclobemide.

    Well known clinical syndromes can be produced by overdose with more commonly ingested substances such as opiates or tricyclic antidepressants. A case of a much more unusual syndrome presenting to the accident and emergency department resulting from overdose with a combination of tablets is reported. The clinical presentation of serotonin syndrome and its management are described. This resulted from acute ingestion of paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and moclobemide, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. ( info)

5/67. Neurological recovery after prolonged verapamil-induced cardiac arrest.

    A 15-year-old female survived a total of 65 minutes cardiac arrest following ingestion of verapamil and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. We consider that the lack of neurological damage, despite evidence of significant renal and myocardial injury, may be related to the possible neuroprotective effect of a large dose of verapamil. ( info)

6/67. Venlafaxine-induced serotonin syndrome with relapse following amitriptyline.

    A case of venlafaxine-induced serotonin syndrome is described with relapse following the introduction of amitriptyline, despite a 2-week period between the discontinuation of one drug and the commencement of the other. electroencephalography may play an important part in diagnosis. With the increasing use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, greater awareness of the serotonin syndrome is necessary. Furthermore, the potential for drug interactions which may lead to the syndrome needs to be recognised. ( info)

7/67. Serotonin discontinuation syndrome: does it really exist?

    Treatment guidelines for depression have typically focused on diagnosis, how to initiate antidepressants, and duration of therapy, while very little is discussed about discontinuing treatment. With the advent of the serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), there is now growing evidence to support a "discontinuation syndrome" associated with withdrawal of therapy. This article describes two cases and presents a review of the literature. ( info)

8/67. Possible serotonin syndrome associated with buspirone added to fluoxetine.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the development of a possible serotonin syndrome in a patient taking buspirone and fluoxetine. CASE SUMMARY: A 37-year-old white man taking fluoxetine 20 mg/d for generalized anxiety disorder developed confusion, diaphoresis, incoordination, diarrhea, and myoclonus after buspirone was added to the drug regimen. DISCUSSION: serotonin syndrome is a potentially lethal condition of serotonin hyperstimulation, which may develop rapidly or over the course of several weeks. Symptoms of serotonin syndrome typically occur following additions or increases of serotonin-enhancing drugs. Although buspirone has variable effects on post- and presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors that may reduce the risk of serotonin syndrome when administered as a single agent, it may cause an adverse reaction when given with other serotonergic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms consistent with serotonin syndrome may develop with the concurrent administration of buspirone and fluoxetine. ( info)

9/67. serotonin syndrome. Presentation of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    serotonin syndrome is an underreported complication of pharmacotherapy that has been relatively ignored in the medical literature. We discuss 2 recent cases seen at our institution and 39 cases described in the English-language literature since 1995. We found that patients with serotonin syndrome most often (74.3%) presented within 24 hours of medication initiation, overdose, or change in dosage. The most common presenting symptoms and signs were confusion, agitation, diaphoresis, tachycardia, myoclonus, and hyperreflexia. The prevalences of hypertension, coma/unresponsiveness, seizures, and death were not as prominent in our study as previously reported, perhaps reflecting earlier recognition and intervention. The most common therapeutic intervention was supportive care alone (48% of patients). The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) antagonists such as cyproheptadine, however, has become more common and might reduce the duration of symptoms. Only 1 death occurred, and most patients (57.5%) had complete resolution of their symptoms within 24 hours of presentation. The increased use of serotonergic agents (alone and in combination) across multiple medical disciplines presents the possibility that the prevalence and clinical significance of this condition will rise in the future. Internists will need to be increasingly aware of and prepared for this pharmacologic complication. Prevention, early recognition of the clinical presentation, identification and removal of the offending agents, supportive care, and specific pharmacologic therapy are all important to the successful management of serotonin syndrome. ( info)

10/67. serotonin syndrome. A common but often unrecognized psychiatric condition.

    This case illustrates that compliance with the basic principles of geriatric pharmacology (start low, go slow, and avoid polypharmacy) might have prevented a clinical syndrome that could have caused serious complications. Fortunately, serotonin syndrome was recognized early, the offending agents were discontinued, and supportive treatment was provided. The patient was ultimately treated with mirtazapine, an antidepressant not associated with serotonergic effects. ( info)
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