Cases reported "Sleep Apnea, Central"

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1/59. A case of motor neurone disease with sleep apnoea syndrome.

    A case of a 63-year-old patient with motor neurone disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) with central sleep apnoea syndrome is being reported. His sleep architecture was fragmented with a high apnea-hypopnea index of 65 per hour and maximum oxygen-desaturation of 78 percent. Total correction of sleep pattern with nasal non-invasive ventilation (BiPAP-ST) was demonstrated. ( info)

2/59. Ondine's curse in association with diabetes insipidus following transient vertebrobasilar ischemia.

    Ischemic lesions of the brainstem can lead to complex neurologic deficits. Failure of the automatic control of ventilation (Ondine's curse syndrome) is a possible but rare syndrome following localized brainstem dysfunction. We report on a 49-year-old man with intermittent bradycardia, cranial nerves' dysfunctions and a slight right-sided hemiparesis. An acute brainstem ischemia was diagnosed and treated immediately with high-dose heparin. cerebral angiography revealed a proximal occlusion of the left vertebral artery but a normal right vertebral artery and a hyperplastic right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Cranial Computed tomography and MRI scan demonstrated multiple ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation. During a 4-week treatment course the patient underwent six episodes of acute severe hypoxia and hypercapnia requiring orotracheal intubation twice and manual ventilation by air mask over a few minutes for four times after a tracheostomy had been performed. Twice a short-term episode of hypothalamic diabetes insipidus was observed following hypoventilation. We conclude that both Ondine's curse syndrome and diabetes insipidus were due to transient vertebrobasilar ischemia. ( info)

3/59. Ondine's curse and Hirschsprung's disease: neurocristopathic syndrome.

    We report a female newborn with Ondine's curse and Hirschsprung's disease--neurocristopathic syndrome. The female infant required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation due to apnea which developed soon after birth. She had abdominal distension with bilious vomiting. A barium enema revealed a caliber change at the rectum and rectal biopsies showed no ganglion cells. colostomy was performed at the age of 17 days. Hypoxemia with hypercapnia was noted during her sleep, and tracheostomy was performed at the age of 55 days. In addition, deafness and pupillary autonomic dysfunction were observed. The definitive surgery for Hirschsprung's disease was performed at the age of 4 months. She is now 2 years old with normal growth but needs ventilator support at home. In this case, we detected no mutation in the RET gene and EDNRB gene. ( info)

4/59. Respiratory control and respiratory sensation in a patient with a ganglioglioma within the dorsocaudal brain stem.

    We encountered a young woman with severe central sleep apnea caused by a medullary glioma located slightly dorsal to and to the right of the midline, a region not generally associated with CO(2) chemosensitivity. The patient had normal spirometric readings, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, maximal inspiratory pressure, and alveolar-arterial oxygen difference. While awake, she displayed marked irregularity in her breathing pattern; her end-tidal CO(2) (FET(CO(2))) ranged from 5.3 to 10.9%. During voluntary hyperpnea, she could quickly reduce her FET(CO(2)) to 4.2%, but her PCO(2) did not change after administration of acetazolamide or progesterone. Like patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), our patient had a relatively intact ventilatory response to exercise; her PCO(2) was high at the start of exercise and increased slightly thereafter. In contrast to CCHS patients, however, our patient had an intact hypoxic ventilatory response (DeltaVE/ DeltaSa(O(2)) = -0.37 L/min/Sa(O(2))). In further contrast to CCHS patients, our patient had a very short breathholding time and described a sensation of air hunger as the factor limiting her breathholding ability. Her heart rate and blood pressure responses to the valsalva maneuver were normal. ( info)

5/59. Unusual respiratory response to oxygen in an infant with repetitive cyanotic episodes.

    High inspired oxygen concentrations have recently been recommended to control cheyne-stokes respiration in adults, with the intention of averting periodic apnea and its attendant arterial desaturation. We report a case study on an infant presenting with recurrent apnea and cyanosis in which oxygen treatment led to a gross form of respiratory instability we call episodic breathing, in which a breathing phase of 60 to 90 s alternated with an apnea lasting up to 60 s. When oxygen was discontinued, a profound arterial desaturation developed before breathing recommenced and restored oxygen levels. We propose that episodic breathing is an unusual respiratory pattern that involves the central chemoreceptors and results from the ventilatory threshold (the central PCO(2) at which breathing starts) lying considerably above the apneic threshold (the central PCO(2 )at which breathing stops). This feature predisposes to lengthy periods of hyperpnea alternating with lengthy periods of apnea. We suggest that when the case infant returned to air during episodic breathing, termination of apnea was entirely dependent upon carotid body activity, which reached a sufficient level to restart breathing only when arterial desaturation was severe. We conclude that oxygen therapy involves potential risks when employed to treat respiratory disorders involving unstable breathing patterns in the infant. ( info)

6/59. Alveolar hypoventilation syndrome in brainstem glioma with improvement after surgical resection.

    A 3-year-old boy presented with brainstem astrocytoma and central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome. Contrast MRI of the brain showed that the tumor involved the cerebellum, with compression of brainstem, and resolved after surgical resection. polysomnography performed before and after total tumor resection showed significant improvement in nocturnal respiratory rate, respiratory disturbance index, and oxygen desaturation. It is apparent that central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome secondary to brainstem tumor may improve after surgical resection for those with favorable anatomic location and histology. Serial polysomnography and MRI scans are useful for diagnosis and in the management plan, and to monitor progress. ( info)

7/59. Neonatal hirschsprung disease, dysautonomia, and central hypoventilation.

    BACKGROUND: A reported association between congenital central hypoventilation, long-segment intestinal aganglionosis (hirschsprung disease), and autonomic dysfunction, with a high recurrence risk and mortality rate, is associated with abnormal neural crest development (neurocristopathy). CASE: A fetus had increasing polyhydramnios, no stomach bubble, and repeatedly nonreactive fetal heart rate tracings despite normal activity. There were no other fetal anomalies on ultrasound. Postnatally all of the above clinical features were diagnosed, prompting diagnosis of neurocristopathy syndrome. She died at 2 weeks of age. CONCLUSION: Antenatal polyhydramnios, nonreactive nonstress tests, and absent stomach bubble in an active fetus indicated neurocristopathy. ( info)

8/59. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders.

    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells. ( info)

9/59. Primary pulmonary hypertension with central sleep apnea: sudden death after bilevel positive airway pressure therapy.

    An obese 23-year-old man with sleep-disordered breathing and primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) had been administered oral beraprost sodium, anticoagulant warfarin, and home oxygen therapy, at another hospital as treatment for the PPH, but he had not experienced any symptomatic improvement. The patient had a body mass index of 32.4kg/m2, and complained of fatigue, shortness of breath on exertion, excessive daytime sleepiness, and snoring. Arterial blood gas analysis showed a PaO2 and a PaCO2 of 70.9 and 31.2mmHg, respectively. A polysomnographic study revealed central sleep apnea with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 29.7episodes/h. The patient showed improvement of daytime sleepiness after starting nocturnal nasal bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy for the central sleep apnea, but his pulmonary hypertension, measured in the daytime, worsened. The patient died suddenly while walking to the bathroom in the morning 1 month after initiation of BiPAP therapy. It is necessary to consider the possibility of sudden death when nasal BiPAP therapy is given to a PPH patient with central sleep apnea. ( info)

10/59. tonic pupil associated with congenital neuroblastoma, hirschsprung disease, and central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report the association of tonic pupil, congenital neuroblastoma, hirschsprung disease, and central hypoventilation syndrome. methods: case reports. RESULTS: Two infants with central hypoventilation syndrome and hirschsprung disease were evaluated for dilated, nonreactive pupils present since birth. In both cases, pharmacologic testing with dilute pilocarpine confirmed denervation supersensitivity consistent with tonic pupil. The diagnosis of congenital neuroblastoma was subsequently established in both infants. CONCLUSIONS: The close association of these conditions in these two young children supports the concept of a common neural crest abnormality being present. A careful systemic evaluation to rule out congenital neuroblastoma should be performed in any young child who presents with tonic pupil in the setting of central hypoventilation syndrome and hirschsprung disease. ( info)
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