Cases reported "spherocytosis, hereditary"

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1/161. Inherited protein c deficiency, protein s deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis.

    We report a family with hereditary spherocytosis in whom there is, in addition, a cluster of genetic predispositions to thrombosis. Although inherited prothrombotic abnormalities are prevalent in the general population, the likelihood of this combination of abnormalities being found in a single family is extremely low. The management of such high risk individuals is discussed. ( info)

2/161. Frequency of very late fatal sepsis after splenectomy for hereditary spherocytosis: impact of insufficient antibody response to pneumococcal infection.

    Very late sepsis in splenectomized patients with hereditary spherocytosis has been seen rarely up to now; the frequency and the immunodeficiency causing it are largely unknown. Within the past 7 years we have learned of four cases of sepsis or meningitis (three fatal) in adult patients with hereditary spherocytosis who had been splenectomized years earlier. The estimated frequency of very late postsplenectomy infections is 0.69 cases of sepsis or meningitis in 1000 patient-years (0.46 deaths in 1000 patient-years). Pneumococci were proven in two patients. The surviving patient showed low antibody titers against pneumococcal serotypes even after pneumococcal meningitis and subsequent vaccination. There have been several reports of an insufficient response to pneumococcal vaccination in patients with severe infections. We recommend determination of pneumococcal antibody titers after immunization in every splenectomized patient: Nonresponders to vaccination may be at high risk for overwhelming postsplenectomy infection. Our data demonstrate that there is a lifelong risk for severe postsplenectomy infections and therefore the lasting need for immediate antibiotic therapy in any case with sudden onset of high fever. ( info)

3/161. Heavy transfusions and presence of an anti-protein 4.2 antibody in 4. 2(-) hereditary spherocytosis (949delG).

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A patient with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) was found not to have red cell membrane protein 4.2. This rare form of HS, or 4.2 (-) HS, stems from mutations within the ELB42 or the EPB3 genes. The patient had long suffered from a gastric ulcer and impaired liver function. He had had several dramatic episodes of gastrointestinal tract bleeding and had received numerous transfusions. An antibody against a high frequency, undefined antigen was found, creating a transfusional deadlock. We elucidated the responsible mutation and searched for an anti-protein 4.2 antibody. DESIGN AND methods: Red cell membranes were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and by Western blotting. Nucleotide sequencing was performed after reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR. RESULTS: The not previously described mutation was a single base deletion: 949delG (CGCAECC, exon 7, codon 317) in the homozygous state. It was called protein 4.2 Nancy. The deletion placed a non-sense codon shortly downstream so that no viable polypeptide could be synthesized. The patient carried a strong antibody against protein 4.2 as shown by Western blotting. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The manifestations resulting from the mutation described were compared with the picture of HS stemming from other ELB42 gene mutations. We discuss the mechanism through which the anti-protein 4.2 antibody developed. There was no way to establish or to rule out whether the antibody participated in the transfusional deadlock found in our patient. ( info)

4/161. A case report of spherocytosis presenting with choledocholithiasis in early childhood and a review of the literature.

    This is a report of spherocytosis presenting unusually early with choledocholithiasis secondary to low grade haemolysis. ( info)

5/161. splenectomy in haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: report of histopathological changes with CD19 B-cell depletion and therapeutic results.

    The pathogenesis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in children without a known familial pattern of inheritance is often difficult to establish. Splenic enlargement, one of the main clinical findings in this disorder, has led to the use of splenectomy for uncontrollable coagulopathy, persistent cytopenia or both. This procedure is also thought to be a useful tool in making a differential diagnosis in cases of the immunochemotherapy-resistant HLH. We report here five cases of splenectomized childhood HLH, in which subsets of mononuclear spleen cells were analysed either by flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry, and the results were compared with those from cases of hereditary spherocytosis (controls). There was a statistically significant depletion of CD19 B cells in the HLH cases (3.8 /- 3.2% vs. 52.6 /- 4.5%, P < 0. 0001) associated with an increase of T cells in three cases and of natural killer cells in another. The histopathological findings included atrophic white pulps, B-cell depletion with fibrosis and haemosiderosis in all five cases. Despite temporary therapeutic benefits, three of the HLH patients had a rapidly deteriorating post-splenectomy course and all three eventually died. These results demonstrate striking depletion of B cells in the enlarged spleens of children with HLH, which may be an intrinsic feature of HLH pathogenesis. Further study is needed to establish the therapeutic value of splenectomy in this disease. ( info)

6/161. Primary biliary cirrhosis and hemolytic anemia confusing serum bilirubin levels.

    hemolysis is observed in more than 50% of patients with cirrhosis. However, there has been little documentation of the association of primary biliary cirrhosis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Two cases, found within a single practice, of primary biliary cirrhosis coexisting with autoimmune hemolysis and a third case coexisting with hereditary spherocytosis are presented. anemia in such patients is commonly attributed to chronic disease, and hyperbilirubinemia is attributed to primary biliary cirrhosis. These patients were considered for liver transplantation until the diagnosis of a comorbid hemolytic process was established. This association may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A diagnosis of comorbid hemolysis must always be considered in context with anemia and serum bilirubin levels that rise out of proportion to the severity of the primary biliary cirrhosis. ( info)

7/161. Efficacy of low dose intravenous immunoglobulins for post-splenectomy treatment of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis.

    Summary Idiopathic autoimmune haemolytic anaemia developed in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis. The behaviour of some osmotic fragility tests throughout the illness and the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins in controlling autoimmune haemolysis which recurred post splenectomy are discussed ( info)

8/161. Massive hemothorax due to intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis.

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare disorder, characterized by the appearance of hematopoietic elements outside of the bone marrow, which occurs in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders or congenital hemolytic anemias. We report on a 64-year-old man with hereditary spherocytosis, who presented with anemia, jaundice, intrathoracic EMH, and massive hemothorax. The diagnosis of EMH was established after computer tomography (CT)-guided punctuation of the paravertebral mass. The patient underwent splenectomy and thoracic drainage. After 1 year, the patient is in good health, with normal hemoglobin values, and hemothorax has not recurred. ( info)

9/161. Coinheritance of two alpha-spectrin gene defects in a recessive spherocytosis family.

    We studied a recessive hereditary spherocytosis (HS) family from norway in which all four children had haemolytic spherocytosis while spectrin (Sp) deficiency was detected in the proband. Molecular analysis demonstrated that all affected children had inherited the low expression alpha-Sp allele LEPRA (Low Expressed PRAgue) from the father. Haplotyping with a polymorphic dinucleotide repeat for the alpha-Sp gene (alphaVNTR) located in the 3' untranslated region of mRNA showed that all recessive children had inherited the same maternal alpha-spectrin allele. The paternal Sp-alphaLEPRA allele was found in cis of the polymorphic alpha-Sp Bughill allele (alphaBH) characterized by the A970D point mutation in the Sp alpha-chain. This mutation was identified on two-dimensional electrophoresis of Sp tryptic digests as an acidic shift of the alphaII tryptic domains (spots alphaIIa). Analyses of the relative expression of the paternal alpha-Sp Bughill polymorphism in the proband showed that the product of the maternal alpha-Sp gene is almost completely absent from the mature erythrocyte membrane. Comparative analysis between alphaVNTR PCR-amplified from genomic dna and from cDNA showed that the maternal low expression alpha-Sp allele is associated with a decreased amount of mRNA. Results from molecular and biochemical studies showed that all the affected children of this family are compound heterozygous for two different low expression alpha-Sp alleles: an uncharacterized defective alpha-Sp allele on the maternal side and an alphaLEPRA allele tagged by the alphaIIa polymorphism on the paternal side. ( info)

10/161. Band 3 Cape Town (E90K) causes severe hereditary spherocytosis in combination with band 3 Prague III.

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is an inherited haemolytic anaemia, characterized by spheroidal, osmotically fragile red blood cells. This disorder exhibits heterogeneity in terms of both clinical severity and underlying molecular defect. We have studied a South African Cape Coloured individual with severe HS owing to a band 3 deficiency caused by two mutations, occurring in trans, in the band 3 gene: a novel variant that we have designated band 3 Cape Town and a previously described mutation, band 3 Prague III. Analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins indicated a deficiency of both band 3 and protein 4.2, as well as a decreased functional capacity of band 3 to transport anions. Band 3 Cape Town is defined by a GAG-->AAG point mutation at codon 90, substituting a glutamic acid with a lysine in the cytoplasmic domain of the molecule, while band 3 Prague III is a codon 870 CGG-->TGG point mutation, replacing an arginine with a tryptophan in the transmembrane region of band 3. mRNA is transcribed from both mutant alleles, implying that mutant proteins are synthesized, but are either degraded prior to membrane incorporation or insertion is impaired. We conclude that the combination of these two mutations exacerbated the clinical presentation of the proband. ( info)
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