Cases reported "spinal cord compression"

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1/1701. Complete rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra managed by posterior surgery. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a young man with rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra, treated by posterior surgery. OBJECTIVES: To describe the management of a rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra by posterior surgery consisting of reduction, decompression, fusion, and transpedicular instrumentation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgery is the generally recommended means of managing lumbar burst fractures with neurologic deficit. Some surgeons recommend anterior decompression, fusion, and instrumentation. Posterior surgery with decompression through laminectomy, spongioplasty of the vertebral body, interbody fusion of damaged discs, posterolateral fusion, and transpedicular fixation is also a safe and successful management technique. The combined approach consists of posterior decompression, fusion, transpedicular fixation, and anterior fusion using pelvic autografts. The optimum method of management remains in question. METHOD: An 18-year-old man with complete rotational burst fracture of the third lumbar vertebra was treated by posterior surgery. This surgery consisted of reduction, laminectomy, decompression, structure of dural sac tears, spongioplasty of the vertebral body, interbody fusion of both damaged discs, and the implantation of a transpedicular Socon fixator (Aesculap, Tuttlingen, germany), including a transverse connector. The case was documented by radiographs and computed tomography scans before surgery and after fixator removal 19 months after surgery. RESULTS: The patient healed solidly with no instrumentation failure. The neurologic deficit Frankel Grade B improved to Frankel Grade D. CONCLUSION: Surgery to manage lumbar burst fracture must include reduction, decompression, restoration and fusion of anterior and posterior elements by using autologous pelvic spongious autografts, and anterior or posterior instrumentation. Posterior surgery including suturing of dural sac tears, fusion of damaged structures, and transpedicular fixation is successful in young patients and patients with good bone quality. ( info)

2/1701. spinal cord compression from precipitation of drug solute around an epidural catheter.

    We report a previously undescribed complication of long-term epidural catheter placement for the administration of analgesia in terminal malignancy. spinal cord compression resulted from a drug-related precipitate forming around the epidural catheter tip, which was successfully treated by surgical decompression. ( info)

3/1701. Meningeal chondrosarcomas, a review of 31 patients.

    We reviewed the literature to study the clinical features, the management and the outcome of meningeal chondrosarcomas. We included 31 patients in this review: 22 were mesenchymal and nine were non-mesenchymal. The mean age was 27 years and 64% arose from the cranial meninges. The treatment was mainly total surgical excision. Adjuvant therapy was given to 36% of patients. Spinal meningeal chondrosarcomas had a better prognosis (81% 1-year survival and 45% 3-year survival). There were no pathognomonic clinical or radiological features. We concluded that the best management of meningeal chondrosarcomas is total surgical excision whenever possible, followed by combined course of radiotherapy and chemotherapy as soon as possible. ( info)

4/1701. artifacts in magnetic resonance images following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: report of two cases.

    Magnetic susceptibility artifacts in two patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy with fusion for cervical intervertebral disc prolapse are described. These artifacts located at the previously operated level suggested severe ventral compression of the dural tube. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the artifactual nature of the MR findings and delineated the possible cause for the recurrence of symptoms in these patients. elements and factors that can possibly lead to MR susceptibility artifacts in post operative imaging are elucidated. The danger of using MR imaging alone in directing the management of these patients is highlighted. ( info)

5/1701. Spinal arachnoid cyst with weakness in the limbs and abdominal pain.

    A 7-year-old male admitted with neck rigidity, severe pain in the abdomen, and progressive weakness in the lower limbs was diagnosed as having a spinal intramedullary arachnoid cyst. There was a dramatic and immediate recovery after fenestration of the cyst. ( info)

6/1701. Neurological complications in insufficiency fractures of the sacrum. Three case-reports.

    Three cases of nerve root compromise in elderly women with insufficiency fractures of the sacrum are reported. Neurological compromise is generally felt to be exceedingly rare in this setting. A review of 493 cases of sacral insufficiency fractures reported in the literature suggested an incidence of about 2%. The true incidence is probably higher since many case-reports provided only scant information on symptoms; furthermore, sphincter dysfunction and lower limb paresthesia were the most common symptoms and can readily be overlooked or misinterpreted in elderly patients with multiple health problems. The neurological manifestations were delayed in some cases. A full recovery was the rule. The characteristics of the sacral fracture were not consistently related with the risk of neurological compromise. In most cases there was no displacement and in many the foramina were not involved. The pathophysiology of the neurological manifestations remains unclear. We suggest that patients with sacral insufficiency fractures should be carefully monitored for neurological manifestations. ( info)

7/1701. Can intramedullary signal change on magnetic resonance imaging predict surgical outcome in cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

    STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study evaluating magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomographic myelography, and clinical parameters in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging can predict the surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: No previous studies have established whether areas of high signal intensity in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images can be a predictor of surgical outcomes. methods: Fifty patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were examined by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic myelography before surgery and by delayed computed tomographic myelography after surgery. The correlation between the recovery rate and the clinical and imaging parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: The best prognostic factor was the transverse area of the spinal cord at maximum compression (correlation coefficient, R = 0.58). The presence of high signal intensity areas on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images correlated poorly with the recovery rate (R = -0.29). However, patients with multisegmental areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images tended to have poor surgical results associated with muscle atrophy in the upper extremities. Postoperative delayed computed tomographic myelography showed that multisegmental areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images probably represent cavitation in the central spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS: patients with multisegmental areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images tended to have poorer surgical results. However, the transverse area of the spinal cord at the level of maximum compression was a better prognostic indicator. ( info)

8/1701. spinal cord compression caused by unusual location and extension of ossified ligamenta flava in a Caucasian male. A case report and literature review.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of a spinal cord compression caused by ossification of the ligamenta flava is presented together with a review of the literature. OBJECTIVE: To present the diagnosis of ossification of the ligamenta flava in a Caucasian man with a proximal thoracic myelopathy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This case shows that the upper parts of the thoracic spine can be involved in ossification of the ligamenta flava, which never before has been reported in Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, it is advised that computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging be combined to provide an accurate diagnosis and proper preoperative evaluation of the bony changes, spinal cord, and compression of the spinal cord. methods: A patient with a thoracic spinal cord compression caused by ossification of the ligamenta flava was treated surgically and made a good clinical recovery. Imaging studies, surgical findings, and results of histopathologic investigations were analyzed to substantiate the diagnosis. RESULTS: The results of the surgical findings seemed to be in contrast with those of the imaging studies. This contrast was occasioned by the uncommon perioperative finding of a fusion of the completely ossified upper and lower parts of the involved adjacent ligamenta flava. Ossification of the ligamenta flava was diagnosed by histopathologic examination, which revealed endochondral ossification and lamellar bone formation without fragments of ligamenta flava. CONCLUSION: Although rarely reported in whites, ossification of the ligamenta flava should be considered in all patients presenting with a spinal cord compression, even at high thoracic levels. The prognosis after decompressive surgery can be good, especially if intramedullary hyperintensities are absent on preoperatively performed T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. ( info)

9/1701. Trivial injuries, associated congenital anomaly and medicolegal interpretation of death.

    Congenital hypoplasia of the odontoid process is a relatively rare phenomenon. A case is presented of a 12-year-old girl who was admitted to hospital with a history of having sustained trivial external injuries when falling after an alleged push. Later, she developed signs of compression of the spinal cord in the cervical region, resulting in quadriplegia and muscle wasting. A laminectomy was performed to relieve the symptoms but the child died 2 1/2 months later. autopsy revealed a congenital anomaly of the atlas and axis vertebrae in the form of hypoplasia of the dens. The case being associated with a criminal assault, the post-mortem analysis and autopsy were significant in resolving medicolegal issues pertaining to the assailant, the operating surgeon and the law-enforcement agencies. ( info)

10/1701. Spontaneous regression of periodontoid pannus mass in psoriatic atlantoaxial subluxation. Case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of a 41-year-old man with psoriasis who had cervical myelopathy caused by atlantoaxial subluxation and periodontoid pannus mass. OBJECTIVE: To describe the possible mechanism underlying the periodontoid pannus formation and the optimal treatment for such cases. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Atlantoaxial subluxation causing spinal cord compression at the craniocervical junction may develop in patients with rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis. Periodontoid pannus formation plays an important role in compromising the anteroposterior diameter of the spinal canal and in causing neurologic deficits. Transoral transpharyngeal excision of the pannus is sometimes thought necessary for anterior decompression of the spinal cord. Spontaneous resolution of the periodontoid pannus after posterior atlantoaxial fusion and fixation has been documented in rheumatoid arthritis, but not in psoriatic arthritis. methods: The patient underwent posterior atlantoaxial fusion and Halifax fixation. RESULTS: The patient experienced clinical improvement. Regression of the periodontoid pannus mass was observed on magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Posterior fusion and instrumentation resulted in spontaneous regression of the pannus mass and symptomatic relief. This report provides evidence that atlantoaxial instability may be the sine qua non for the formation of periodontoid pannus, and that amelioration of such instability leads to spontaneous resolution of the pannus mass. ( info)
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