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1/18. Unilateral retinal hemorrhages and ipsilateral intracranial bleeds in nonaccidental trauma.

    The classic ophthalmologic finding in nonaccidental traumatic injury is bilateral widespread retinal hemorrhage with or without intracranial hemorrhage. We present 3 cases of unilateral retinal hemorrhage associated with ipsilateral intracranial bleeds to extend the many different presentations of nonaccidental trauma. ( info)

2/18. Vertex epidural hematoma with communicating bifrontal subgaleal hematomas treated by percutaneous needle aspiration.

    The case of an 11-year-old boy is presented who suffered a bicycle accident with a parasagittal skull fracture, a small vertex epidural hematoma, frontal contusions and a frontal subgaleal hematoma. Enlargement of the vertex epidural hematoma was diagnosed after development of a slight paraparesis on day 11 with the aid of MRI. Three percutaneous needle aspirations of the subgaleal hematoma with a total of 59 ml being evacuated led to quick recovery and disappearance of the subgaleal as well as the vertex epidural hematoma. It is speculated that both hematomas communicated via the skull fracture thus making the evacuation of the epidural hematoma by subgaleal punctures possible. ( info)

3/18. Late detection of supraclinoid carotid artery aneurysm after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and occlusion of the ipsilateral cervical internal carotid artery.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report the first case of traumatic aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA), which we speculate may have developed or grown after traumatic occlusion of the ipsilateral cervical ICA. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 26-year-old man presented with severe traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and occlusion of the right cervical ICA after a motor vehicle accident. Three-dimensional CT angiography on admission showed no aneurysm. However, cerebral angiography 3 weeks after the injury showed a large aneurysm of the right supraclinoid ICA. The aneurysm was trapped, and pathological examination showed that it was a traumatic aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS: In this case we cannot be sure that the aneurysm was not present on admission. In view of the significant SAH, a lesson of this case may be to suspect such an aneurysm early on and perform early diagnostic cerebral angiography. ( info)

4/18. Identification of an arteriovenous fistula in a child. Case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: A 6-year-old girl sustained a subarachnoid hemorrhage after a mild head injury and was discovered to have an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). INVESTIGATIONS AND TREATMENT: The etiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage was not evident on the initial brain CT. Brain CT with CT angiography identified the lesion. The AVF was further imaged with brain MRI followed by cerebral angiography and successfully embolized. OUTCOME: The child did not suffer any neurological sequelae. ( info)

5/18. Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistula in children. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistula (TSAPF) is a rare complication of thoracic trauma. Late diagnosis is a problematic dilemma in these cases. patients with thoracic injury have persistent pleural leakage, thoracic vertebral injury, pneumocephalus, urinary retention and paraplegia should alert the surgeon for TSAPF. Two cases of TSAPF due to gunshot injury are reported. ( info)

6/18. Mycotic cerebral vasculitis in a paediatric cardiac transplant patient excludes misadventure.

    We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with cardiomyopathy who received a heart transplant. Due to organ rejection, the dosage of immunosuppressive agents was increased postoperatively. The patient complained of intermittent headaches in the following days and developed a haemorrhagic necrosis of the left thalamus. A week later, an oral dose of cyclosporin A was accidentally given intravenously, and 2 weeks later a recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage of unknown origin was diagnosed. The clinical course was then characterised by progressive deterioration resulting in coma, fluctuating brain stem symptoms and the development of a massive cerebral oedema with subsequent brain death. A coroner's autopsy was instigated to investigate a claim of medical misadventure. Neuropathological investigations found a focal infiltration of fungal hyphae in the left posterior cerebral artery resulting in necrosis of the vascular wall and thus explaining the source of the recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage which eventually resulted in the girl's death. Medical misadventure due to the administration of cyclosporin was not directly responsible for the death of this patient. This case illustrates that it is of paramount importance to copiously sample and investigate the basal cerebral arteries in cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage of unknown origin, in particular in a medico-legal context. ( info)

7/18. Assessment of prognostic factors in severe traumatic brain injury patients treated by mild therapeutic cerebral hypothermia therapy.

    This study analyzed the predictable factors of outcome such as neuro-parameters and systemic complications to elucidate the indications for therapeutic hypothermia. In our institute, 35 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow coma Scale 3-7) were treated with mild hypothermia therapy (33 degrees-35 degrees C). Twenty-two of these 35 patients underwent complete neuromonitoring and outcome assessments by glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at three months after injury. GOS of hypothermia group was significantly better than another patient group which was treated without mild hypothermia therapy. The hypothermia group was divided into two groups: good outcome (GOOD) (good recovery or moderate disability; n = 9, 40.9%) and poor outcome (POOR) (severe disability, vegetative state, or death; n = 13, 59.1%). The mean age (mean 30.2 years, range 9-46) was significantly lower in GOOD than in POOR (mean 45.2 years, range 17-62). patients aged over 50 years had poor outcome. CPP was significantly higher in GOOD during hypothermia. All patients with thrombocytopenia had poor outcome. hypothermia therapy can improve outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury who are younger than 50 years old, without severe brain damage, and if improvement of cerebral perfusion is expected. Systemic complications must be prevented as far as possible by combination with other therapies. ( info)

8/18. papaverine angioplasty to treat cerebral vasospasm following traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    The management of vasospasm associated with traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage presents many challenges. We present a 20-year-old male admitted after sustaining a closed head injury complicated by a Fisher grade III traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage. Despite treatment with intravenous nimodipine he developed a delayed ischaemic neurological deficit due to cerebral arterial vasospasm. The vasospasm was successfully managed with serial papaverine angioplasty. ( info)

9/18. Traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by the impact of a golf ball: a case report.

    A 50-year-old male was hit by a high-speed golf ball on the left lateral side of his neck. He collapsed immediately and was sent to hospital, where he was pronounced dead. The autopsy showed an extensive basal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Careful gross and histological examinations disclosed a rupture of the right vertebral artery at a site very close to the bifurcation. It was estimated that the impact of the golf ball on the left side of his neck resulted in the rupture of the contralateral vertebral artery, owing to its hyperextension. Although there are many reports on traumatic basal subarachnoid haemorrhage, the present type of trauma seems rare to our knowledge. ( info)

10/18. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and extracranial vertebral artery injury: a case report and review of the literature.

    The case is presented of a 19-year-old man who was assaulted and died shortly afterward from a large traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) that arose from rupture of the left vertebral artery, proximal to the point at which the artery penetrated the dura. The literature regarding TBSAH and vertebral artery rupture is reviewed, and a number of points are highlighted: patients with TBSAH may remain conscious for a period of hours after injury, subcutaneous or muscular bruising may be contralateral to the ruptured vessel, fractures of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and significant pathology of the vertebral artery are not typically associated with TBSAH, and rupture of the vertebral artery may be intracranial, junctional, or extracranial. ( info)
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