Cases reported "thiamine deficiency"

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1/101. Metabolic acidosis and thiamine deficiency.

    We describe a 19-year-old patient who was receiving home parenteral nutrition in whom lactic acidosis developed. A review of her home parenteral nutrition formula revealed the absence of multivitamins, most significantly thiamine. After thiamine administration, the acidosis resolved, and the patient experienced pronounced clinical improvement. Clinicians must be aware that thiamine is essential for normal glucose metabolism and that thiamine deficiency can lead to lactic acidosis. thiamine deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis of lactic acidosis. The recent shortage of intravenous multivitamin preparations has led to documented cases of lactic acidosis as a result of thiamine deficiency, and a previous shortage led to several deaths due to lactic acidosis as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. All patients receiving parenteral nutrition must also receive adequate vitamin supplementation. ( info)

2/101. Lactic acidosis caused by thiamine deficiency in a pregnant alcoholic patient.

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis from accumulation of lactic acid is a relatively common condition, whereas its causation by thiamine deficiency is not. methods: We studied a pregnant alcoholic patient who presented with hyperemesis and a high anion gap acidosis. RESULTS: Lactic acidosis and thiamine deficiency were confirmed. The patient's symptoms and acidosis resolved with thiamine administration. CONCLUSIONS: Lactic acidosis caused by thiamine deficiency must be suspected when pregnant patients at risk for thiamine deficiency present with a high anion gap acidosis. A large dose of thiamine must be administered immediately. ( info)

3/101. early diagnosis of pediatric Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Wernicke's encephalopathy may be fatal if untreated. Because Wernicke's encephalopathy is suspected to be underdiagnosed in children, the authors wished to assess the frequency of overlooked diagnosis and to establish pertinent findings that could lead to early identification of pediatric Wernicke's encephalopathy. The authors performed multiple literature searches seeking pediatric patients with Wernicke's encephalopathy (age = 20 years or younger). A total of 30 patients was found, and the authors added a new patient. Each case report had its clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data, diagnostic method, and outcome analyzed. Of 31 patients, 16 were female and 15 male; the median age /- S.D. was 11 /- 6.5 years. The most frequent underlying disorder was malignancy in 11. Thirteen patients died undiagnosed, 16 recovered with thiamine therapy (eight with sequelae), and two died of infection soon after thiamine replacement was initiated. Only six presented with the Wernicke's encephalopathy clinical triad (mental status changes, ocular signs, and ataxia) at neurologic onset; nine eventually demonstrated this triad. The high rate of patients diagnosed only at postmortem examination (41.9%) confirms that Wernicke's encephalopathy is underdiagnosed in children. Thiamine therapy is warranted if any component of the Wernicke's encephalopathy triad is present in an appropriate clinical setting. ( info)

4/101. A common cause of altered mental status occurring at an uncommon age.

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a neurologic disorder due to a nutritional deficiency of thiamine, characterized by ocular palsies, ataxia, and altered mental activity. While Wernicke's encephalopathy is commonly attributed to alcoholism in the adult population, it has been described in children receiving prolonged parenteral nutrition and those with malignancies and AIDS. The disease, however, is rarely diagnosed in the pediatric population during life. We report a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in a child with prolonged starvation and aim to improve awareness of a potentially fatal but treatable disease. ( info)

5/101. Mitochondrial myopathy and familial thiamine deficiency.

    We studied two siblings with a mitochondrial myopathy, familial thiamine deficiency, and an A3243G mutation of the mitochondrial dna (mtDNA). The elder brother (patient 1, now 36 years old) developed myopathy and beriberi heart at 20 years of age. Thiamine therapy resolved the cardiac symptoms and hyperpyruvicemia and improved the myopathy. The younger brother presented aged 19 years with a myopathy (patient 2, now 35 years old). thiamine deficiency was present in the siblings and parents, and ragged-red fibers (RRFs) were noted in muscle biopsies from the siblings. Analysis 17 years later demonstrated thiamine malabsorption and an A3243G mutation of the mtDNA in both siblings and their mother, progressive myopathy, and an increased number of RRFs and elevated serum CKMB activity in patient 1. Thiamine treatment decreased the serum concentrations of lactate and pyruvate in patient 2, but not patient 1. The role of thiamine in mitochondrial dysfunction caused by an electron transfer disorder in the setting of A3243G mtDNA mutation is discussed. ( info)

6/101. Wernicke's syndrome after bariatric surgery.

    Two young females with severe morbid obesity presented with Wernicke's syndrome after Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunum bypass had been performed. The first patient had recurrent vomiting and dyplopia two months post-surgery. physical examination indicated bilateral ophthalmoparesia with conserved convergence and ataxia. The second patient had frequent vomiting episodes over the previous three months together with lower limb hypotonia, myoclonia and generalised tonicoclonic seizures on two occasions within one year of surgery. In both cases routine blood test, ion levels (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphates), electroencephalogram and CT scan were normal. Thiamine therapy was instigated on the basis of clinical intuition and the first patient achieved complete remission within 24 hours while the second improved gradually in that two years later only mild lower limb hypotonia and a slight cognitive deficit remains. Erythrocyte transketolase activity determinations were abnormal on two separate occasions for this second patient. Vitamin B1 determinations were not available for the first patient. In conclusion, the restriction in energy intake and the persistent vomiting together with malabsorption induced by the surgical intervention could explain the vitamin deficiency causing Wernicke's encephalopathy. This indicates a need for close monitoring and systematic vitamin supplementation in those patients who undergo bariatric surgery. ( info)

7/101. 'Iatrogenic' Wernicke's encephalopathy in japan.

    'Iatrogenic' Wernicke's encephalopathy has appeared to occur more frequently in japan, probably induced by the change of our Japanese national health insurance policy in 1992. We report 4 nonalcoholic patients with such Wernicke's encephalopathy, which occurred during the early postoperative oral food intake period following intravenous nutrition without vitamin supplements. We analyzed the medical records of 4 patients, 3 men and 1 woman, aged between 55 and 71 years, who were admitted to our hospital between 1992 and 1995. Three patients underwent gastrointestinal surgery and 1 suffered chronic pyothorax. We diagnosed our patients as having Wernicke's encephalopathy based on typical neurological abnormalities, in addition to typical cranial magnetic resonance image findings, low serum vitamin B(1) levels, or both. Although all of the patients were treated with vitamin B(1) and showed some improvement, 1 patient developed korsakoff syndrome, 2 made incomplete neurological recovery, and 1 died. We speculated that the body vitamin B(1) stores had been decreasing in our patients who did not receive any vitamin supplements during intravenous hyperalimentation or hydration. Subsequent administration of high calorie and high carbohydrate oral diets increased the demand for vitamin B(1), further depleting the vitamin stores, thereby causing 'iatrogenic' Wernicke's encephalopathy. The change of our national health insurance policy in 1992 discouraged the routine administration of vitamins, probably causing Wernicke's encephalopathy in our patients. ( info)

8/101. chorea induced by thiamine deficiency in hemodialysis patients.

    thiamine deficiency is mainly encountered in alcoholics or food faddists, but it may complicate chronic dialysis because of low intake and accelerated loss of thiamine in dialysis patients. We report here 2 hemodialysis (HD) patients who developed chorea induced by thiamine deficiency. We propose that thiamine deficiency, with a consequent dysfunction of the basal ganglia, may induce chorea in HD patients. ( info)

9/101. Wernicke's encephalopathy in a child: case report and MR findings.

    We report a child affected by Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), which was unsuspected clinically. MRI suggested the correct diagnosis and prompted appropriate thiamine replacement. WE is a difficult condition to recognise, especially in children, and MRI may be useful in the diagnosis of the disease. ( info)

10/101. Efficacy of hemodiafiltration in a child with severe lactic acidosis due to thiamine deficiency.

    We report the case of a child in whom severe lactic acidosis (LA) and hyperammonemia developed after twenty days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for diffuse esophageal damage due to caustic ingestion. The revision of TPN preparation revealed that thiamine was never included and the hypothesis of thiamine deficiency was later confirmed measuring the serum thiamine level. Because severe metabolic acidosis the dialytic treatment with hemodiafiltration (HDF) and bicarbonate infusion were performed: the patient very quickly recovered with dramatic reestablishment of the acid-basic balance. Thiamine administration restored lactate metabolism. We emphasize that HDF is a useful and prompt treatment for LA to get over the critical phase of neurological and cardiological damage. ( info)
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