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1/113. Vascular reconstruction in Buerger's disease.

    In 23 of 148 patients with Buerger's disease, it was possible to undertake 27 arterial reconstructive procedures: bypass in 22 and thrombo-endarterectomy in 5. In a follow-up of 10 months to 8 years, the overall patency rate was 26 per cent. The long term patency rate of bypass grafting was good in obstruction of main vessels, but unsatisfactory with multiple occlusions. Bypass grafting was preferred to thromboendarterectomy. To obtain long term patency of revascularaized segments, complete abstinence from tobacco is absolutely essential. The preparatory manoeuvres for antogenous venous graft should be as atraumatic as possible. A functional diagnosis is indispensable when considering operative indications and for follow-up study of patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. ( info)

2/113. Spatz-Lindenberg disease: a rare cause of vascular dementia.

    BACKGROUND: Isolated cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans (Spatz-Lindenberg disease) is not well recognized as a cause of vascular dementia. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old woman presented with dementia and pyramidal signs. neuroimaging showed multiple areas of white matter change. brain biopsy showed intimal thickening of the walls of leptomeningeal and intraparenchymal arteries, almost to complete occlusion, with an intact internal elastic lamina and media and without inflammation or infiltration. The cortex showed only moderate gliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Spatz-Lindenberg disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia. Additional studies of its pathogenesis are required to determine appropriate treatment. ( info)

3/113. Implantable spinal cord stimulator to treat the ischemic manifestations of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease).

    thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) is a segmental inflammatory vasculitis that involves the small-sized and medium-sized arteries, veins, and nerves. It is causally related to tobacco use. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the presence of distal arterial disease in individuals who smoke and in whom other disease entities have been excluded. The most effective treatment for Buerger's disease is smoking cessation. Without strict adherence to tobacco avoidance, disease progression is likely. methods to control ischemic pain include medications, sympathectomy, or surgical revascularization. The effect of sympathectomy is unpredictable, and the chances of a successful revascularization procedure are rare because distal target vessels often are extensively diseased. Herein, we describe a patient whose condition did not respond to the usual conservative therapy but did respond dramatically to the implantation of a permanent spinal cord stimulator. Although these devices have been used for more than 20 years in various other peripheral arterial diseases, their use in Buerger's disease has been limited. ( info)

4/113. Stenosis-jet can cause a dissection of the superficial femoral artery.

    A dissection of the superficial femoral artery mainly occurs due to trauma or manipulation of the artery by means of interventional procedures. In contrast to dissections of the carotid arteries which are known to occur spontaneously we present the case of a stenosis of the superficial femoral artery that led to a dissection caused by the stenosis-jet. The dissection on the other hand caused an appositional thrombus which led to the embolic occlusion of the pedal-arteries. In case of peripheral embolisms in patients with or without history of peripheral arterial occlusion disease it is important to look for a causing arterial pathology preferably by duplex sonography. ( info)

5/113. Cerebral vein thrombosis in a case with thromboangiitis obliterans.

    thromboangiitis obliterans is a chronic inflammatory vessel disease that involves predominantly the small and medium-sized arteries and veins of the distal extremities. Appearance and cessation of symptoms are closely related to patterns of tobacco consumption. That cerebral arteries can also be involved is shown by reports of rare cases in which cerebral artery occlusion led to infarction. We report on a 28-year-old man with thromboangiitis obliterans who developed extensive cerebral vein thrombosis after a single episode of cigarette smoking following several years of nonsmoking. Despite extensive evaluation, no other known cause or predisposition of cerebral vein thrombosis could be found. This case suggests that cerebral veins can be involved in thromboangiitis obliterans and patients with thromboangiitis obliterans might be at risk for cerebral vein thrombosis. ( info)

6/113. prothrombin gene 20210 G-->A and factor v Arg 506 to Gln mutation in a patient with Buerger's disease--a case report.

    thromboangiitis obliterans, or Buerger's disease, is a segmental occlusive inflammatory disorder of the arteries and veins most commonly affecting the lower extremities of young male cigarette smokers. The etiopathogenesis of the thromboangiitis obliterans is still obscure. The authors have identified heterozygosity for the recently described prothrombin gene 20210 G-->A variation and factor v Arg 506 to Gln (factor v Leiden) mutation in a patient with Buerger's disease. Both mutations confer a high risk of thrombosis. This coincidental observation may serve as further evidence that a thrombotic mechanism is involved in Buerger's disease. ( info)

7/113. cocaine and Buerger disease: is there a pathogenetic association?

    A patient with a diagnosis of Buerger disease is described with peripheral limb ischemia and toe amputations, 2 recent small myocardial infarctions, and a long history of cigarette use. Peripheral angiography findings were incompatible with the clinical impression, and further workup revealed heavy recreational use of cocaine. A literature review of the clinical and pathologic manifestations of Buerger disease and of cocaine exposure shows them to have remarkable similarities. Based on our case observation and suggestive evidence from the literature, we propose that cocaine exposure may masquerade as Buerger disease, and further, that unrecognized cocaine exposure may underlie such cases, even including those originally described by Buerger in 1908. ( info)

8/113. thromboangiitis obliterans: a rare cause of a reversible Raynaud's phenomenon.

    A 25-year-old woman with progressive Raynaud's phenomenon and digital necrosis is presented. Systemic sclerosis and other connective tissue disorders as well as atherosclerosis and arterial emboli were excluded with appropriate laboratory examinations. Arteriography revealed multiple palmar and digital occlusions with corkscrew-shaped vessels. Based on these characteristic arteriographic and clinical findings, the diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans was finally retained. With intravenous perfusion of the prostacyclin analogue iloprost (2 ng/kg/min, 6 h daily during 21 days), a complete healing of Raynaud's phenomenon and of the digital necrosis was observed. There was no recurrence during the 1-year follow-up. This observation demonstrates that thromboangiitis obliterans is a potential reversible cause of severe Raynaud's phenomenon in young women even in the absence of lower limb involvement. Early recognition is important to avoid irreversible complications such as loss of digits. ( info)

9/113. A challenging treatment for an ischaemic ulcer in a patient with Buerger's disease: vascular reconstruction and local flap coverage.

    An ischaemic heel ulcer in a patient with Buerger's disease was reconstructed using an in situ saphenous vein graft combined with a local flap. The bypass was sufficient to restore blood supply to the ischaemic limb but a flap was necessary to cover the persistent heel ulcer, which remained after revascularisation. One month after bypass surgery the ulcer was debrided and the resulting defect was covered with a lateral supramalleolar flap. The postoperative course was uneventful and the flap donor site healed well. When treating ischaemic ulcers in a patient with Buerger's disease, vascular reconstruction should be considered first in order to salvage the limb. After revascularisation, a local flap can be used to cover a persistent defect but very few local flaps have been reported. This report is the first published case of successful local flap transfer after bypass surgery in a patient with Buerger's disease. We think that a local flap is one possible treatment for a non-healing ulcer after revascularisation. ( info)

10/113. Intestinal involvement in Buerger's disease.

    thromboangiitis obliterans characteristically affects small- and medium-sized vessels of the limbs in young smokers. There is some controversy about the existence of visceral localizations of the disease. The case of a patient with a well-established diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans who presented with mesenteric ischemia is described and the literature concerning mesenteric involvement in the disease is reviewed. ( info)
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