Cases reported "torsades de pointes"

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1/230. myotonic dystrophy associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes.

    A rare case of myotonic dystrophy (MD) with congestive heart failure, associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) is reported. A 53-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of congestive heart failure. Electrocardiograph (ECG) showed first-degree atrioventricular block and QT prolongation. During hospitalization, TdP appeared but returned to sinus rhythm spontaneously. As the patient had quadriplegia, a myopathic face, cataracts, diabetes mellitus, and an increased number of cytosine-thymineguanine (CTG) repeats (760 repeats), she was diagnosed as having MD. Electrocardiographic analysis of her family also revealed abnormal QT(U) prolongation in her daughter and brother who both had MD, while ECG findings of other family members without MD were normal. Thus, the presence of QT(U) prolongation was associated with MD in this family. ( info)

2/230. C-terminal HERG mutations: the role of hypokalemia and a KCNQ1-associated mutation in cardiac event occurrence.

    BACKGROUND: The long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetically heterogeneous disease in which 4 genes encoding ion-channel subunits have been identified. Most of the mutations have been determined in the transmembrane domains of the cardiac potassium channel genes KCNQ1 and HERG. In this study, we investigated the 3' part of HERG for mutations. methods AND RESULTS: New specific primers allowed the amplification of the 3' part of HERG, the identification of 2 missense mutations, S818L and V822 M, in the putative cyclic nucleotide binding domain, and a 1-bp insertion, 3108 1G. hypokalemia was a triggering factor for torsade de pointes in 2 of the probands of these families. Lastly, in a large family, a maternally inherited G to A transition was found in the splicing donor consensus site of HERG, 2592 1G-A, and a paternally inherited mutation, A341E, was identified in KCNQ1. The 2 more severely affected sisters bore both mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of mutations in the C-terminal part of HERG emphasizes that this region plays a significant role in cardiac repolarization. Clinical data suggests that these mutations may be less malignant than mutations occurring in the pore region, but they can become clinically significant in cases of hypokalemia. The first description of 2 patients with double heterozygosity associated with a dramatic malignant phenotype implies that genetic analysis of severely affected young patients should include an investigation for >1 mutation in the LQT genes. ( info)

3/230. Torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia during low dose intermittent dobutamine treatment in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure.

    The authors describe the case of a 56-year-old woman with chronic, severe heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy and absence of significant ventricular arrhythmias who developed QT prolongation and torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia during one cycle of intermittent low dose (2.5 mcg/kg per min) dobutamine. This report of torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia during intermittent dobutamine supports the hypothesis that unpredictable fatal arrhythmias may occur even with low doses and in patients with no history of significant rhythm disturbances. The mechanisms of proarrhythmic effects of Dubutamine are discussed. ( info)

4/230. life-threatening ventricular tachycardia due to liquorice-induced hypokalaemia.

    We report on a patient with hypokalaemia and severe ventricular tachycardia of torsades de pointes type which turned out to be caused by an apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome associated with liquorice consumption. The patient, a 44-year-old woman, attended the hospital because of irregular heart rhythm and she displayed repeated episodes of life-threatening torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia. The initial serum potassium was low: 2.3 mmol L-1. The patient was treated with potassium and magnesium infusions, and the dysrhythmias eventually ceased. Endocrinological investigations showed no indication of Cushing's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism. After some time it became clear that the patient had ingested moderately large amounts of liquorice every day for 4 months. After the patient stopped this habit the hypokalaemia and dysrhythmias did not recur and after more than 1 year there are no signs of cardiac illness. ( info)

5/230. torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia induced by clarithromycin and disopyramide in the presence of hypokalemia.

    We report a 76-year-old woman who developed TdP ventricular tachycardia induced by combined use of clarithromycin and disopyramide. She had a history of myocardial infarction 5 years earlier and has taken disopyramide for supraventricular arrhythmias. In addition, she had taken clarithromycin for upper respiratory tract infection. On admission, an ECG showed prolongation of QTc interval to 0.71 seconds and self-terminating TdP occurred several times. disopyramide was metabolized by the cytochrome enzyme CYP3A4 and clarithromycin competitively inhibits this enzyme, probably resulting in an increase in plasma concentration of disopyramide. We should consider this possibility when prescribing clarithromycin in combination with antiarrhythmic agent disopyramide. ( info)

6/230. nicorandil, a potassium channel opener, abolished torsades de pointes in a patient with complete atrioventricular block.

    TdP is a serious complication of AV block. We report a case of complete AV block with QT prolongation who had bouts of TdP resistant to lidocaine and isoproterenol. Temporary pacing could not be performed, because insertion of a pacing lead triggered TdP that deteriorated into ventricular fibrillation. nicorandil, a potassium channel opener, shortened the QT interval and abolished TdP. This may suggest that potassium channel opening drugs are clinically effective against TdP associated with bradycardia-dependent QT prolongation. ( info)

7/230. Early proarrhythmia during intravenous amiodarone treatment.

    We present a case of early (within the first 24 hours) development of malignant torsades de pointes (TdP) associated with intravenous amiodarone therapy. After correction of predisposing factors (heart failure, hypokalemia, digoxin) amiodarone again resulted in torsades. This observation suggests that in patients who have experienced amiodarone-induced proarrhythmia, amiodarone administration under different, more stable clinical conditions may still be hazardous. ( info)

8/230. torsades de pointes in a case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with special reference to the pathologic findings of the heart including the conduction system.

    A clinicopathologic study was performed in a 77-year-old female with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who had experienced recurrent syncopal attacks due to Torsades de Pointes (TdP) following QT prolongation and atrioventricular block. She died suddenly two years later while eating dinner. Pathologic findings of the heart showed a dilated and hypertrophied left ventricle. The heart weighed 550 g. There were two foci of localized endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) beneath the aortic valve, one with a size of 3.5 x 3.5 cm, and the other (2 x 1 cm) located on the upper ventricular septum. Histologic findings showed hypertrophy and disarray in the left ventricular myocardium. The conduction system using serial sectioning revealed remarkable bilateral bundle branch fibrosis and hypertrophied purkinje fibers in the left bundle branch adjacent to the EFE on the ventricular septum. These findings were thought to be related to the occurrence of TdP. ( info)

9/230. meglumine antimoniate, amiodarone and torsades de pointes: a case report.

    Pentavalent antimonial drugs used for the treatment of leishmaniasis have been associated with sudden deaths, probably due to the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Prolongation of the QT interval and ventricular tachyarrhymias have been described in patients on amiodarone therapy. We report a case of recurrent torsades de pointes following treatment with pentavalent antimonial drugs and amiodarone. ( info)

10/230. haloperidol-induced torsade de pointes.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of torsade de pointes related to the administration of high-dose intravenous haloperidol for the treatment of severe agitation. CASE SUMMARY: Reports in the literature of intravenous haloperidol-induced torsade de pointes are rare. We describe the case of a 41-year-old white woman with no predisposing factors who developed torsade de pointes 55 minutes after a dose of intravenous haloperidol 80 mg (total dosage 915 mg over 7 d). The results of the electrocardiogram were consistent with torsade de pointes and showed a prolonged QTc interval of 610 milliseconds. Intravenous magnesium sulfate 2 g/100 mL NaCl 0.9% was administered, which controlled the arrhythmia. The patient received one additional 80-mg haloperidol dose six hours after the arrhythmia-triggering dose, without reoccurrence of torsade de pointes. haloperidol was then discontinued, and the patient had no further arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: Our case report and others from the literature suggest that intravenous haloperidol administration may prolong QT intervals in some patients, precipitating the potentially life-threatening arrhythmia torsade de pointes. Clinicians should be aware of haloperidol's potential to induce torsade de pointes, since it is used regularly for agitation and delirium in the critical care arena. ( info)
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