Cases reported "torticollis"

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1/296. Congenital fistula of the palate.

    Four cases of congenital fistula of the palate are presented. All four patients had a fistula which was situated in the vault with a bifid uvula, submucous separation of the palatal muscles, deformities of the palatal plates and unilateral cleft lip. Velopharyngeal incompetence appeared in primarily treated children. The aetiology and surgical treatment of the congenital defect are discussed. ( info)

2/296. Atlantoaxial rotary subluxation in children.

    Traumatic torticollis is an uncommon complaint in the emergency department (ED). One important cause in children is atlantoaxial rotary subluxation. Most children present with pain, torticollis ("cock-robin" position), and diminished range of motion. The onset is spontaneous and usually occurs following minor trauma. A thorough history and physical examination will eliminate the various causes of torticollis. Radiographic evaluation will demonstrate persistent asymmetry of the odontoid in its relationship to the atlas. Computed tomography, especially a dynamic study, may be needed to verify the subluxation. Treatment varies with severity and duration of the abnormality. For minor and acute cases, a soft cervical collar, rest, and analgesics may be sufficient. For more severe cases, the child may be placed on head halter traction, and for long-standing cases, halo traction or even surgical interventions may be indicated. We describe two patients with atlantoaxial rotary subluxation, who presented with torticollis, to illustrate recognition and management in the ED. ( info)

3/296. arteriovenous fistula: a cause of torticollis.

    torticollis is a symptom that may represent a wide spectrum of disorders ranging from a simple etiology to a life-threatening pathology. Pediatricians have to suspect central nervous system abnormalities whenever faced with torticollis. The authors report an arteriovenous fistula at the craniocervical junction in a patient presenting with torticollis. ( info)

4/296. The sternomastoid "tumor" of infancy.

    The sternomastoid "tumor" of infancy is a firm, fibrous mass, appearing at two to three weeks of age. It may or may not be associated with torticollis. Generally, the "tumor" initially grows, then stabilizes, and in about half the cases recedes spontaneously after a few months. It may leave a residual torticollis or may be associated with a facial or cranial asymmetry of a delayed torticollis. The etiology is unknown, a direct cause and effect relationship to birth trauma has been largely disproved although approximately half these children are products of breech deliveries. The treatment is controversial. Approximately half of these "tumors" will resolve spontaneously without sequelae. Progressive torticollis or development of facial asymmetry are considered indications for surgery. The purpose of this report is to acquaint the head and neck surgeon with this entity which may confront him for diagnosis and treatment. ( info)

5/296. An unusual case of subluxation of C.3-C.4.

    A case is reported of spontaneous subluxation of C.3 on C.4 in a 6-year-old boy due to an upper respiratory infection after surgical treatment for muscular torticollis. ( info)

6/296. Sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy: two cases of an interesting entity.

    Sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy (SCMTI), also known as fibromatosis colli or muscular torticollis, is the most common cause of congenital torticollis. It is present in approximately 0.4% of live births, and usually 90% of patients will have a good prognosis if therapy is initiated and continued for the appropriate period of time. This paper presents two cases of SCMTI and explains the diagnostic modalities and treatment options for this entity. SCMTI should be diagnosed early in the infant's life, since early detection and initiation of conservative treatment leads to resolution of the disease in the majority of patients. ( info)

7/296. Congenital torticollis in association with craniosynostosis.

    The incidence of congenital torticollis in association with plagiocephaly is 1 in 300 newborns, with the torticollis resulting from pathologically sustained contraction of the sternocleidomastoid. Such conditions as facial asymmetries, craniovertebral anomalies, cervical hemivertebra, and mono- or polydysostoses may also be associated with torticollis diagnosed during the neonatal period. With particular reference to synostotic (coronal and/or lambdoidal) plagiocephaly, a clear distinction is made in this paper between posterior neurocranial flattening secondary to the sustained rotation of the skull resulting from torticollis and that seen in synostotic plagiocephaly. The rarity of torticollis with sustained contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle relative to the frequency of occipital-parietal flattening in newborn kept in the supine position has not been discussed in the literature and is therefore of clinical importance. In light of the fact that the prognosis and, consequently, the treatment plan vary directly with the presence or absence of synostoses, clinical evaluation also includes cephalometrics, plain skull x-rays, and CT imaging. If the torticollis is associated with neurocranial deformity but synostosis is absent, cervical traction and physiotherapy resolve the symptoms. When, however, the clinical picture is complicated by synostotic plagiocephaly, corrective surgery is necessary, though cervical traction and physiotherapy are essential to provide early and complete cure of the torticollis. ( info)

8/296. reflex sympathetic dystrophy in children.

    reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a syndrome characterized by pain in one or more extremities, usually associated with vasomotor changes. Its occurrence in childhood has long been thought to be rare. We describe six cases of pediatric reflex sympathetic dystrophy and suggest that this syndrome could be underdiagnosed in children and adolescents. Psychologic problems frequently play a role in this disorder, which often can be treated conservatively. We also point out that the diagnosis is mainly clinical. An early diagnosis can avoid unnecessary tests and potentially can improve response to treatment, and prognosis. ( info)

9/296. Case report of malocclusion with abnormal head posture and TMJ symptoms.

    Abnormal cervical muscle function can cause abnormal head posture, adversely affecting the development and morphology of the cervical spine and maxillofacial skeleton, which in turn leads to facial asymmetry and occlusal abnormality. There can be morphologic abnormalities of the mandibular fossa, condyle, ramus, and disk accompanying the imbalance of the cervical and masticatory muscles activities. Two normally growing Japanese female patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion presented with TMJ symptoms and poor head posture as a result of abnormal sternocleidomastoid and trapezius cervical muscle activities. One patient underwent tenotomy of the two heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the other patient did not. In addition to orthodontics, the 2 patients received physiotherapy of the cervical muscles during treatment. Both were treated with a functional appliance as a first step, followed by full multi-bracketed treatment to establish a stable form of occlusion and to improve facial esthetics with no head gear. This interdisciplinary treatment approach resulted in normalization of stomatognathic function, elimination of TMJ symptoms, and improvement of facial esthetics. In the growing patients, the significant response of the fossa, condyle, and ramus on the affected side during and after occlusal correction contributed to the improvement of cervical muscle activity. Based on the result, early occlusal improvement, combined with orthopedic surgery of the neck muscles or physiotherapy to achieve muscular balance of the neck and masticatory muscles, was found to be effective. Two patients illustrate the potential for promoting symmetric formation of the TMJ structures and normal jaw function, with favorable effects on posttreatment growth of the entire maxillofacial skeleton. ( info)

10/296. A medico-legal report to a solicitor.

    This is an example of the influence that modern pain science can have on medico-legal reporting. The report has been reproduced with minor changes. These changes have been made so as to protect the identities of those involved and to assist the reader. ( info)
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