Cases reported "ventricular dysfunction"

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1/44. Radiofrequency catheter ablation in a haemodynamically compromised premature neonate with hydrops fetalis.

    A preterm infant was born at 35 weeks gestation after failed antenatal antiarrhythmic therapy. The infant had an incessant supraventricular tachycardia, impaired ventricular function and hypotension and failed to respond to adenosine, cardioversion and intravenous amiodarone. After resuscitation from cardiovascular collapse, a successful radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) of a left free wall atrioventricular pathway was performed at 24 h of age without extracorporeal support. The infant is normal on follow up at 12 months of age. Whilst most fetal and neonatal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias respond to antiarrhythmic medications and RFA is not required, this is the earliest RFA to be performed on a premature infant when antiarrhythmics have failed. ( info)

2/44. Right ventricular infarction with cardiogenic shock treated with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support: a case report.

    A patient with a right ventricular infarction was resuscitated with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS), after attempts at reperfusion, high-dose inotropic support and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation failed to improve the hemodynamic compromise. Emergency PCPS improved the cardiogenic shock and the reduced right ventricular load, allowing the ischemic right ventricle to recover in the setting of unsuccessful reperfusion. This case demonstrates the use of PCPS as a hemodynamic support device for spontaneous recovery of the ischemic right ventricle. PCPS may be a potential therapy for patients with right ventricular infarction. ( info)

3/44. 'Tako-Tsubo' transient ventricular dysfunction: a case report.

    During admission for investigation of dysphagia, an 82-year-old woman suddenly complained of dyspnea, which was followed by cardiogenic shock. Her symptoms, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and laboratory data were compatible with an extensive acute anterior myocardial infarction. Emergency cardiac catheterization showed no atheromatous narrowing in any coronary artery. However, the contractions of the left and right ventricles were diffusely and severely impaired, except for some hyperkinesis of the basal area. The asynergy, as well as the abnormalities on the ECG, improved almost to normal by the 35th hospital day. An endomyocardial biopsy from the right ventricle during the acute phase showed atypical myocardial damage with proliferation of fine collagen fibers and small round-cell infiltration including polymorphologic leukocytes. This type of transient cardiac disorder has recently been described in japan, and is called 'Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy' because of the characteristic appearance of the left ventricular asynergy. In the present case, ventricular asynergy was not limited to the left ventricle, but was also present in the right ventricle. ( info)

4/44. An unusual case of biventricular cardiac failure.

    We present a patient with acute retrosternal pain and dyspnoea. Clinical examination revealed a woman in shock with a loud holosystolic murmur and congested jugular veins. echocardiography showed severe mitral insufficiency. At transoesophageal echocardiography a large mass was seen in the right atrium. The differential diagnosis was a thrombus or an intracardiac tumour. Subsequent histology revealed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the right atrium, the wall of the left atrium extending to the mitral valve and further location in the pelvis and duodenum. The discussion incorporates a brief overview of the literature. ( info)

5/44. Perioperative management of biventricular failure after closure of a long-standing massive arteriovenous fistula.

    PURPOSE: To report the perioperative management of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) closure in a patient with high-output heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. CLINICAL FEATURES: In a 71-yr-old man, closure of a long-standing massive AVF between the right femoral artery and vein was performed. After closure of the AVF, his pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) increased from 52/21 mmHg to 68/26 mmHg, his cardiac index decreased from 5.27 L.min(-1).m(-2) to 3.18 L.min(-1).m(-2), and his pulmonary wedge pressure increased from 15 mmHg to 32 mmHg due to an acute increase in afterload. Co-administration of prostaglandin E and a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor improved the cardiac index and the PAP. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical closure of the fistula may not always lead to resolution of the high output cardiac failure. In this case, afterload management using arterial dilators (prostaglandin E1, phosphodiesterase III inhibitor), use of inotropic drugs (phosphodiesterase III inhibitor), and close attention to volume status was crucial for a successful outcome after surgical AVF closure. ( info)

6/44. Novel KCNJ2 mutation in familial periodic paralysis with ventricular dysrhythmia.

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the KCNJ2 gene, which codes cardiac and skeletal inward rectifying K channels (Kir2.1), produce Andersen's syndrome, which is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmia, and dysmorphic features. methods AND RESULTS: In 3 Japanese family members with periodic paralysis, ventricular arrhythmias, and marked QT prolongation, polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism/dna sequencing identified a novel, heterozygous, missense mutation in KCNJ2, Thr192Ala (T192A), which was located in the putative cytoplasmic chain after the second transmembrane region M2. Using the xenopus oocyte expression system, we found that the T192A mutant was nonfunctional in the homomeric condition. Coinjection with the wild-type gene reduced the current amplitude, showing a weak dominant-negative effect. CONCLUSIONS: T192, which is located in the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding site and also the region necessary for Kir2.1 multimerization, is a highly conserved amino acid residue among inward-rectifier channels. We suggest that the T192A mutation resulted in the observed electrical phenotype. ( info)

7/44. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of an incessant supraventricular tachycardia in a premature neonate.

    A 32-week, premature neonate with incessant supraventricular tachycardia and hemodynamic compromise who failed to respond to antenatal and postnatal antiarrhythmic therapy underwent successful radiofrequency catheter ablation (RCA) of a concealed left free-wall accessory pathway when the infant was 4-days-old and weighed only 1,840 grams. At follow-up performed 60 days after the procedure, the infant remained free of any drug, in sinus rhythm, and in normal hemodynamic condition. ( info)

8/44. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation for cardiogenic shock due to cardiac contusion in an elderly trauma patient.

    Blunt thoracic trauma may cause cardiac contusion and cardiogenic shock resistant to inotropic support. The use of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABCP) as a mechanical means of augmenting cardiac function following cardiac contusion is rare with case reports largely limited to its use in young trauma patients. We describe the case of a frail, 80-year-old woman who suffered cardiac contusion in a motor vehicle crash. She developed cardiogenic shock with electrocardiograph changes, elevated troponin t and severe global dysfunction on echocardiography. She was successfully managed with invasive monitoring, inotropic support and IABCP. This case provides support for aggressive resuscitation even in the very elderly as recovery from severe cardiac contusion may be possible. ( info)

9/44. Cardiac encasement by metastatic myxoid liposarcoma.

    Isolated cardiac metastasis from a primary liposarcoma of noncardiac origin is a rare occurrence. A patient who presented with biventricular failure and constrictive hemodynamics years after successful resection of a primary liposarcoma of the thigh is described. Extensive cardiac encasement by tumor was suspected on diagnostic imaging. Hemodynamic instability and multiorgan failure necessitated urgent exploratory sternotomy. The patient died intraoperatively. Extensive metastatic sarcoma limited to the heart was confirmed during surgical procedure. This case suggests that in clinical and pathological investigation of a cardiac mass, knowledge of previous extracardiac involvement with soft tissue sarcoma is essential. ( info)

10/44. Noncompaction of ventricular myocardium: a study of twelve patients.

    We report 12 patients with ventricular noncompaction who were echocardiographically identified at our institution since 1991. The mean age at presentation was 3.5 years. Five patients had isolated noncompaction. Three of them had subnormal left ventricular systolic function at presentation. Noncompaction was associated with complex congenital heart defect in 3 patients. Four patients had simple congenital heart defects: pulmonary stenosis, coarctation of aorta with aberrant origin of right subclavian artery, ventricular septal defect, and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. The observed rhythm abnormalities were wolff-parkinson-white syndrome and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, bigemini ventricular extrasystoles, and left bundle branch block. A transvenous pacemaker was implanted in a patient because of complete heart block. Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is rare. Our patients clearly represent the clinical and morphological spectrum of this disorder. Distinct morphological features can be diagnosed on 2-dimensional echocardiography. ( info)
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