Cases reported "Virus Diseases"

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1/251. Doppler aortic flow pattern in the recovering heart treated by cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation International Society for artificial organs.

    A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of chest pain and was diagnosed with severe heart failure due to viral myocarditis. Intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) and cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were employed. Using Doppler echocardiography, we evaluated the descending aortic blood flow pattern. When cardiac ECMO was initiated from the right femoral artery, a strong backflow of blood generated by the pump was observed in the abdominal aorta because the forward flow from the native heart was weak. Two days later, the blood flow was reversed from the thoracic to abdominal aorta; the natural flow was strengthened because the native heart had improved. The observation of this phenomenon is helpful for determining the recovery of cardiac function under cardiac ECMO support. ( info)

2/251. The efficacy of therapeutic plasmapheresis for the treatment of fatal hemophagocytic syndrome: two case reports.

    A potentially fatal hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) has been noted in patients with reactive HPS. We describe 2 patients with reactive HPS treated with a regimen of therapeutic plasmapheresis and evaluate the efficacy of plasmapheresis for fatal HPS. Case 1 was a 31 year-old woman who had been treated for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with corticosteroid hormones and immunosuppressants. She presented with persistent leukopenia and thrombocytopenia with spiking fever. She had an elevated level of serum ferritin, liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, and plasma inflammatory cytokines. Her bone marrow smear disclosed numerous hemophagocytosis of histiocytes. She was administered therapeutic plasmapheresis with total plasma exchange by fresh frozen plasma. There was an immediate and prominent decrease of cytokines, and she completely recovered. Case 2 was a 34 year-old woman who had been receiving high doses of corticosteroids and plasmapheresis for severe Stevens-Johnson's syndrome. After 18 months, she presented with physical and laboratory findings resembling lupus-like conditions and was administered high doses of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Human parvovirus B19 infection was detected by IgM and IgG antibodies and viral dna from a bone marrow sample; moreover, a bone marrow smear disclosed findings of HPS. Repeated therapeutic plasmapheresis was effective for improving her symptoms and laboratory abnormalities; however, she suffered from septic methicilline resistant staphylococcus aureus infection and finally died of a brain hemorrhage resulting from disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). ( info)

3/251. Stealth virus epidemic in the Mohave Valley: severe vacuolating encephalopathy in a child presenting with a behavioral disorder.

    An infectious illness, attributed to atypically structured cytopathic "stealth" viruses, occurred in 1996 in the Mohave Valley region of the united states. A stealth virus-infected child from this region has developed a severe noninflammatory, vacuolating (spongiform) en cephalopathy. The illness initially presented as a behavioral problem without overt neurological signs. Extensive investigations, including repeated magnetic resonance imaging, two brain biopsies, and stealth virus cultures, have helped define the disease process occurring in this child. Significant clinical benefit with apparent retardation of disease progression occurred during a 6-week course of ganciclovir therapy. The potential contributing role of stealth virus infections in children presenting with behavioral problems needs to be addressed. ( info)

4/251. fatigue that doesn't go away.

    The classic profile of the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patient is a white, middle-age female. Characterized by profound fatigue, CFS often starts with an acute viral infection. While today's medicine provides symptomatic relief, research is offering innovative insights. With this research, is a cure for these patients just around the corner? ( info)

5/251. gout: beyond the stereotype.

    Not all gout presents with involvement of the big toe, and not all gout patients are middle-aged men. Chronic gout may mimic rheumatoid arthritis; hyperuricemia may develop in postmenopausal women and in organ transplant recipients who are being treated with immunosuppressive agents. Both classic and nonclassic cases may benefit from new therapeutic agents. ( info)

6/251. Palatal myoclonus in postinfectious opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome : a case report.

    An adult male presenting with acute onset opsoclonus, myoclonus and cerebellar ataxia is being reported. Patient had myoclonus involving limbs and palate. There are only a few reported cases associated with palatal myoclonus. Patient showed gradual spontaneous recovery. Possibility of underlying malignancy was excluded by detailed investigations. ( info)

7/251. Viral infections in interferon-gamma receptor deficiency.

    interferon-gamma receptor deficiency is a recently described immunodeficiency that is associated with onset of severe mycobacterial infections in childhood. We describe the occurrence of symptomatic and often severe viral infections in 4 patients with interferon-gamma receptor deficiency and mycobacterial disease. The viral pathogens included herpes viruses, parainfluenza virus type 3, and respiratory syncytial virus. We conclude that patients with interferon-gamma receptor deficiency and mycobacterial disease have increased susceptibility to some viral pathogens. ( info)

8/251. Recurrent viral associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a child with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with subsequent viral-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) or secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is extremely rare. A 15-month-old girl with disseminated LCH experienced three episodes of VAHS during maintenance therapy. Viral infection, with influenza A, herpes simplex, and adenovirus, respectively, was documented at each episode. She recovered each time after interruption of maintenance therapy. The occurrence of fever and pancytopenia in patients with chemotherapy-treated LCH can be associated with VAHS and not with relapsing LCH. ( info)

9/251. HLA-mismatched CD34-selected stem cell transplant complicated by HHV-6 reactivation in the central nervous system.

    We report here a patient who suffered from PCR- confirmed human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) meningoencephalitis after allogeneic purified CD34 cell transplantation from his HLA-mismatched sibling donor, even though he had been on intense prophylaxis with i.v. ganciclovir (GCV), acyclovir (ACV) and gamma-globulin containing a specific antibody against HHV-6. Serological evaluation disclosed that both the donor and recipient had IgG antibody against HHV-6 before transplantation. His blood WBC count started to transiently increase on day 10, and all blood components had decreased by day 20. He then developed a severe headache and high blood pressure, and sporadic abnormal neurological findings including nystagmus and delirium. An analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed 8 cells/microl, a glucose level of 130 mg/dl and a protein level of 201 mg/dl (normal, 50 mg/dl) on day 26. At the time, HHV-6 was detected only in CSF by a PCR-based method and he was diagnosed as having meningoencephalitis due to the local reactivation of HHV-6. Although he failed to respond to high-dose therapy with ACV (60 mg/kg/day) and gamma-globulin, the dna of this virus disappeared from the CNS upon treatment with GCV (30 mg/kg/day) combined with the intraventricular infusion of alpha-interferon. His clinical course was further complicated with meningoencephalitis due to staphylococcus epidermidis, and he died of tentorial herniation on day 79 without the recovery of blood components. This experience may indicate that intense prophylaxis to prevent reactivation of HHV-6 in the CNS is essential for the management of such profoundly immunosuppressed patients. ( info)

10/251. Non-specific viral infections as possible synchronising events of the manifestation of type 1 diabetes.

    Four cases of simultaneous manifestation of Type 1 diabetes in two members of the same household are reported. In all cases, a flu-like infection preceded diabetes onset. Surprisingly, despite simultaneous development of insulin dependency, insulin requirements were strikingly different at 3 months in all cases. These observations suggest that increased insulin resistance during infection may cause insulin deficiency in individuals with widely varying residual beta cell activity. ( info)
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