Cases reported "Vitamin B 6 Deficiency"

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1/18. Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II.

    The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate. ( info)

2/18. Transient nonketotic hyperglycinemia in an asphyxiated patient with pyridoxine-dependent seizures.

    An asphyxiated neonate with pyridoxine-dependent seizures and associated transient nonketotic hyperglycinemia is reported. Frequent seizures and their resultant hypoxic-ischemic insult may have led to the elevation of the cerebrospinal fluid glycine level in this patient. early diagnosis and treatment of pyridoxine-dependent seizures is essential for an improved neurologic outcome. ( info)

3/18. Neonatal pyridoxine responsive convulsions due to isoniazid therapy.

    A 17-day-old infant on isoniazid therapy 13 mg/kg daily from birth because of maternal tuberculosis was admitted after 4 days of clonic fits. No underlying infective or biochemical cause could be found. The fits ceased within 4 hours of administering intramuscular pyridoxine, suggesting an aetiology of pyridoxine deficiency secondary to isoniazid medication. ( info)

4/18. Interrelationships between the B-vitamins in B12-deficiency neuromyelopathy. A possible malabsorption-malnutrition syndrome.

    Five patients presenting clinically with a form B12-deficiency neuromyelopathy, with cord involvement in all and proximal muscle weakness in two of them, were investigated for their neurologic, hematologic and vitamin status. Megaloblastosis and achlorhydria were present in all, and impaired absorption of 57Co vitamin B12 and of D-xylose was detected in four. Total cyanide extracted vitamin B12 (A) was lowered in all cases and noncyanide extractable (B) in four of the five, being zero in three. All five responded to injections of hydroxocobalamin. In two patients sequential estimations showed that both A and B, especially the latter, rose steeply initially, normalizing at 50% of A after some weeks. Moiety B is suggested to be physiologically the more active and dissociable form of vitamin B12. Markedly elevated initial serum folate levels, and their subsequent fall under treatment with B12, indicated the operation of the "methyltetrahydrofolate trap". blood levels of thiamin, nicotinic acid and pantothenic acid were within normal limits. However, serum riboflavin (B2) total vitamin B6 and pyridoxal were reduced in all where tested. Vitamin B6 deficiency could have resulted from its own malabsorption and have contributed to be B12 deficiency. Vitamin B2 and B6 levels also corrected themselves on B12 therapy. The B-vitamin deficiencies in our patients probably resulted from intestinal malabsorption, with a possible factor of malnutrition consequent to their strictly vegetarian diet. ( info)

5/18. Vitamin B6 deficiency in patients with a clinical syndrome including the carpal tunnel defect. Biochemical and clinical response to therapy with pyridoxine.

    Ten individuals having a severe clinical status associated with the carpal tunnel syndrome were selected for treatment with pyridoxine. The status of vitamin B6, as pyridoxal phosphate, was determined by the specific activities of the glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase of the erythrocytes (EGOT). Before treatment, the patients showed a deficiency of vitamin B6 as determined by 1) a comparison of the specific activities of EGOT with those of a control group (P less than 0.001); and 2) a differential assay based upon the principle of unsaturation and saturation of a Coenzyme-Apoenzyme System (CAS), as applied to EGOT. These patients were treated with pyridoxine, and the specific activities of EGOT were determined after 2 and 4 weeks. Not only was there a disappearance of the deficiency of pyridoxal phosphate, but the level of EGOT activity increased 55-68% during 2-4 weeks, respectively. More apoenzyme was apparently biosynthesized, because the specific activities were significantly higher than before therapy (P less than 0.001/4 wks). Clinical evaluation showed a great improvement in their status, and anticipated surgery for some of the patients became unnecessary. It is concluded that patients with a severe syndrome including the carpal tunnel defect have a deficiency of vitamin B6, and that both the syndrome and the deficiency are relived by therapy with pyridoxine. ( info)

6/18. Electrocardiographic changes due to pyridoxine deficiency.

    A young woman presented with marked alterations in the ECG without cardiological symptoms or evidence of structural heart disease after further evaluation. There was evidence of vitamin deficiency and the ECG normalized after 10 days of treatment with vitamins. Similar alterations have been described in several experimental studies with rats, but this is the first case reported in humans. ( info)

7/18. Pharmacorefractory status epilepticus due to low vitamin B6 levels during pregnancy.

    We report a patient with pyridoxine-dependent epileptic seizures during early childhood. She had been completely seizure free for 23 years until she became pregnant. During the week 14 of her pregnancy, status epilepticus developed and was refractory to antiepileptic drugs but responded to intravenous administration of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 levels were found to be decreased during pregnancy, although the patient reported continued and regular oral supplementation. Possible reasons for decreased vitamin B6 levels leading to status epilepticus are discussed. ( info)

8/18. pyridoxine-dependent seizures: magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    pyridoxine-dependent seizures are an extremely rare genetic disorder. early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of permanent brain damage. Elevated levels of glutamate and decreased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the frontal and parietal cortices are among the characteristic features of this disorder. These metabolic abnormalities eventually lead to seizures and neuronal loss. In this case report, we present magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings of a 9-year-old girl with pyridoxine-dependent seizures with mental retardation. The N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine ratio was found to be decreased in the frontal and parieto-occipital cortices, which could indicate neuronal loss. magnetic resonance spectroscopy could be a useful tool in the neuroimaging evaluation for assessment of parenchymal changes despite a normal-appearing brain magnetic resonance image in patients with pyridoxine-dependent seizures. ( info)

9/18. Focal status epilepticus as atypical presentation of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy.

    pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy usually presents in the neonatal period or even in utero, is refractory to antiepileptic medications, and is treatable with lifelong administration of pyridoxine. The seizures are typically generalized tonic-clonic, although myoclonic seizures or infantile spasms have been described. We report an infant who presented at 5 months of age with a right-sided clonic seizure with fever. Subsequently, she had recurrent right focal or generalized seizures despite sequential treatment with various antiepileptic medications. At 7 months, she was hospitalized with status epilepticus, which was finally controlled with pyridoxine. After she became seizure free, she continued to have a strong left arm preference with mild weakness of the right arm and delayed language skill. Eventually, she outgrew these symptoms. This case illustrates that pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, although rare, must be included in the differential diagnosis of focal seizures, especially when the seizures are refractory to traditional antiepileptic drugs. ( info)

10/18. Clinical results of a cross-over treatment with pyridoxine and placebo of the carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Clinical evaluation was made of cross-over treatments by pyridoxine and a placebo of patient 22 having the carpal tunnel syndrome. Extraordinary monitoring of the specific activities of the erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase proved a severe vitamin B6 deficiency, which was partially corrected by the Recommended Dietary Allowance of 2 mg, and completely corrected by 100 mg. The severity of the syndrome diminished on the recommended dietary allowances and the patient was asymptomatic at the higher dosage. On placebo, both the vitamin B6 deficiency and syndrome reappeared. retreatment with 100 mg again corrected both the deficiency and syndrome. Measurements (total n = 19) of flexion of proximal interphalangeal joints of the index fingers by a goniometer, and of pinch by the Preston gauge revealed objective normalization. Scores of 17 symptoms revealed reductions at both the 2- (P less than 0.01) and 100-mg (P less than 0.001) dosages. Conduction through the carpal tunnels had improved by electromyography. These and previous data on a total of 22 patients showed the concomitant presence of a deficiency of vitamin B6 and the carpal tunnel syndrome; a causal relationship is apparent. ( info)
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