Cases reported "wilms tumor"

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1/999. Bilateral wilms tumor in a boy with severe hypospadias and cryptochidism due to a heterozygous mutation in the WT1 gene.

    Mutations in the WT1 gene causing Wilms tumors were first reported in wagr syndrome (wilms tumor, aniridia, Genitourinary malformation, mental Retardation) and Denys Drash syndrome (pseudohermaphroditism, wilms tumor, nephropathy), but only in a few patients with hypospadias and cryptorchidism without other signs of Denys Drash (DDS) or wagr syndrome WT1 mutations were identified. We report a boy, who was born in 1989 with hypospadias and bilateral cryptorchidism. Previous karyotyping and endocrine studies had ruled out any known cause of male pseudohermaphroditism. Subsequently, he developed a bilateral wilms tumor, which was detected by palpation at the age of 15 months during a routine visit by the general pediatrician. Because of its extensive size, surgery and chemotherapy were needed for treatment. Analysis of the WT1 gene was performed 5 y after diagnosis and revealed a C to T transition in one allele generating a stop codon at codon 362 and subsequently leading to a truncated protein with loss of its ability to bind to dna. No signs of DDS or wagr syndrome are present in the boy. The work up of this patient and the so far known few comparable cases from the literature lead to the conclusion that in newborns with severe urogenital malformations not due to known chromosomal or endocrine disorders mutational screening of the WT1 gene should be performed, to evaluate the high risk of developing a wilms tumor. We favor mutational screening in these patients as an easy tool for investigation, because in the future it will probably decrease the necessity of frequent control visits in patients without a WT1 mutation. ( info)

2/999. Total parenteral nutrition and home parenteral nutrition: an effective combination to sustain malnourished children with cancer.

    A patient with Wilms' tumor and severe failure to thrive required total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for "catch-up" growth. This case underscores how TPN might be useful in the management of a child with cancer. Cancer cachexia, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections caused by immune suppression can lead to potentially serious macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. ( info)

3/999. Wilms' tumor in the adult--report of a case and review of the literature.

    Wilms' tumor is rare in adults. Its histology, grading and staging are identical to those in children. Investigators agree on a combined modality approach in the treatment of adult Wilms' tumor (AWT), but differ on how aggressive it should be. Some advocate adopting the current pediatric protocols which take into account tumor stage and grade. Others recommend using advanced disease regimens for all stages and grades. We report on an 18 year-old male with stage IV favorable histology Wilms' tumor. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy and received postoperative radiotherapy with intensive four-drug chemotherapy. He had one relapse after 12 months which was successfully treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. He remains in remission without relapses 36 months after the initial diagnosis. The genetics of Wilms' tumor has been well studied in children but is practically unknown in adults; karyotype and molecular genetic studies in this case were normal. ( info)

4/999. The same mutation affecting the splicing of WT1 gene is present on frasier syndrome patients with or without Wilms' tumor.

    Denys-Drash and Frasier syndromes are rare human disorders that associate nephropathy with gonadal and genital abnormalities. In DDS there is a predisposition to Wilms' tumor. Heterozygous point mutations in the Wilms' tumor, type1 gene (WT1), particularly those altering the zinc finger (ZF) encoding exons, have been reported in most DDS patients, while mutations in intron 9 of the same gene cause FS. This paper describes two cases of DDS, one FS and one patient with Wilm's tumor and intersex genitalia, in which mutations were searched by sequencing the exons 8 and 9 of WT1 gene. Patient 1 carried a missense point mutation in exon 8 (ZF2), converting a CGA-Arg codon to a TGA-stop codon. Patient 2 presented a single nucleotide deletion within exon 9 (ZF3) introducing a premature chain termination at codon 398. patients 3 and 4 had a C-->T transition at position 4 of the second alternative splice donor site of exon 9 (this mutation was detected in peripheral blood and in tumor derived dna of patient 3). However, patient 3 had previously developed a Wilms' tumor. This is the first case of Wilms' tumor development in a phenotypically and genetically confirmed case of FS. ( info)

5/999. Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma with skeletal muscle differentiation: a case report.

    Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma (CPDN) with skeletal muscle differentiation is reported for its rarity and its unique place in the spectrum from multilocular cyst to wilms tumor. Unlike wilms tumor CPDN does not metastasize and is cured by nephron sparing surgery. ( info)

6/999. Bench surgery with autotransplantation for bilateral synchronous Wilms' tumor: a report of three cases.

    The surgical management of bilateral synchronous nephroblastoma remains controversial. The authors describe three cases treated using ex vivo tumor dissection followed by autotransplantation in an attempt to preserve functioning renal tissue. Two children are alive and tumor free with adequate renal function at 30 months and 3 years, respectively. One died from tumor recurrence with metastases 9 months after surgery. This technique is an acceptable alternative to bilateral nephrectomy followed by transplantation. ( info)

7/999. Subcapsular hemorrhage of adult Wilms' tumor.

    Wilms' tumor is a rare malignancy of kidney in adults. It usually cannot be differentiated from other renal masses preoperatively. This is a presentation of a case of adult Wilms' tumor who developed spontaneous hemorrhage during radiological evaluation. As tumor rupture can change the stage of the tumor and alter the prognosis of the patient, urgent work-up and treatment is advised. ( info)

8/999. diagnosis and referral of Wilms' tumor.

    Wilms' Tumor, also know as nephroblastoma, is a childhood renal tumor. The assessment and diagnosis of a Wilms' tumor is one of the many challenges faced in the primary care setting. This article presents a brief review of Wilms' tumor in the pediatric population and its occurrence in a case presentation. ( info)

9/999. Metanephric adenofibroma: report of a case and review of the literature.

    The recent recognition of a variety of pediatric renal tumors of different biologic behavior places an ever-increasing demand on the surgical pathologist for an accurate diagnosis. Although metanephric adenofibroma is one of the rarest benign renal tumors, the clinical importance of correctly diagnosing it cannot be overemphasized because it can potentially be mistaken as Wilms' tumor. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of a case of metanephric adenofibroma and discuss its differential diagnosis. The neoplasm was composed of two discrete components: a major fibroblastic element and a minor immature epithelial element. The latter formed a small nodule beneath the renal capsule, which could barely be detected by magnetic resonance imaging. This subcapsular nodule, however, was slightly soft and tan and was distinctly different from the white, whorled cut surface of the main tumor. It was formed by closely packed small immature epithelial cells in a slightly edematous background, which was histologically identical to metanephric adenoma and closely resembled epithelial Wilms' tumor. Unlike Wilms' tumor, however, the epithelial cells were very bland with no mitoses. The main bulk of the tumor was formed by spindle fibroblastic cells that were cytologically similar to the spindle cells in congenital mesoblastic nephroma. The tumor, however, was well demarcated without the irregular infiltrating edges of congenital mesoblastic nephroma. In contrast to the randomly distributed epithelial element throughout the stromal component in previous reported cases of metanephric adenofibroma, our finding of the exceedingly small and discrete epithelial component expands the known histologic spectrum of the disease. In addition, the presence of such minute epithelial nodule underscores the importance of diligent pathologic examination and careful sampling of tissue for histologic examination. ( info)

10/999. Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma in an adult: an immunohistochemical, lectin histochemical and ultrastructural study.

    AIMS: Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma (CPDN) is an uncommon renal multicystic tumour, usually affecting early infants. To our knowledge, this report describes the first case of CPDN occurring in an adult. methods AND RESULTS: A 45-year-old man was found incidentally to have a left renal cystic tumour, measuring 20 mm in diameter, at the lower pole far from the pelvis. The tumour was composed of multilocular cystic spaces of variable size and intervening septa without solid nodular areas. The cysts were lined by a single layer of flattened, hobnail, or columnar epithelium. The septa were made of mesenchymal cells, which were admixed with small numbers of loosely aggregated blastemal cells, occasional tubular structures in various stages of development, and a few glomeruloid structures. The tumour cells had no anaplasia, and mitoses were rare. Immunohistochemical and lectin histochemical studies revealed that the cyst lining epithelium and the tubular structures in the septa expressed predominantly the markers for distal tubules and collecting ducts. Ultrastructurally, the cyst lining cells closely resembled collecting duct cells while some tubular structures showed an immature nephrogenic morphology. The patient was alive and well without evidence of recurrence 11 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: CPDN does occur in adults, as experienced in Wilms' tumour, though its incidence is extremely low. This study suggests that CPDN may show maturation intermediate between cystic nephroma and Wilms' tumour, even in adult cases. ( info)
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