Cases reported "Wolman Disease"

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1/22. Lysosomal acid lipase mutations that determine phenotype in Wolman and cholesterol ester storage disease.

    Mechanisms producing the divergent phenotypes, wolman disease (WD) and cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD), associated with the genetic deficiency of human lysosomal acid lipase/cholesterol ester hydrolase (hLAL) function were investigated with the determination of HLAL activity levels, mRNA and protein expression, and defects in structural gene sequences in cells from three WD and five CESD patients. Measured with natural substrates, HLAL activities were all below 2% of normal, regardless of phenotype. immunoblotting showed a lack of detectable hLAL protein in all mutant fibroblasts. Four CESD, but no WD genomes contained at least one allele with a specific exon 8 splice junction mutation, c.894 G>A, that encodes a shortened form of hLAL mRNA. Other CESD mutations were identical in type to the WD defects: nucleotide deletions (positions 397, 684, 980), insertions (594), or substitutions (193, 347) that result in premature terminations precluding any function. The only exception was a substitution at nucleotide 866 in the CESD case without an exon 8 splicing mutation; expression of the predicted S289C change in a transfection assay produced a low, but clearly measurable, level of acid esterase activity. Although it is not easily demonstrated in conventional assays, CESD is distinct from WD in that at least one mutant allele has the potential to produce enough residual enzymatic function to ameliorate the phenotype; in the majority of CESD cases this may come from a single, easily detected, splicing mutation in one allele. ( info)

2/22. Wolman's disease diagnosed by intestinal biopsy.

    We describe a fatal case of Wolman's disease in a 5-month-old Italian infant with severe gastrointestinal symptoms in whom the diagnosis was made from intestinal biopsy findings at the age of 3 1/2 months. Abdominal CT scan, elevated blood acid phosphatase levels and histologic findings confirmed the diagnosis. ( info)

3/22. wolman disease successfully treated by bone marrow transplantation.

    wolman disease is characterized by severe diarrhea and malnutrition leading to death during infancy. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is the cause of the symptoms and signs. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. All Wolman disease patients have adrenal gland calcification. Previous therapeutic attempts have failed to provide remission. We report successful long-term bone marrow engraftment in a patient with wolman disease resulting in continued normalization of peripheral leukocyte lysosomal acid lipase enzyme activity. diarrhea is no longer present. Now, at 4 years of age, this patient is gaining developmental milestones. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels are normal. liver function is normal. This is the first long-term continued remission reported for wolman disease. ( info)

4/22. The Middle-East connection of wolman disease.

    The clinical, laboratory and cytological features of 2 Bahraini infants with Wolman's disease are described. While one of the cases showed the classical diagnostic features, the other case exhibited a few atypical features such as lack of adrenal calcification and unusual morphology of vacuolated marrow macrophages. literature review shows that this disorder may not be rare in this region. ( info)

5/22. Wolman's disease--a case report.

    Wolman's disease is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. We report a case, which we identified with foamy histiocytes in bone marrow and adrenal calcification in radiological imaging. The diagnosis can be made on minimal investigation when clinically suspected. But cytogenetic study is required to substantiate the diagnosis further. ( info)

6/22. Isolated fetal ascites caused by wolman disease.

    wolman disease is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by reduced levels of lysosomal acid lipase. It occurs in infancy and is fatal in most cases before the age of 1 year. Affected infants show signs of lipid storage in most tissues, including hepatosplenomegaly, abdominal distension, vomiting, steatorrhea, failure to thrive, and adrenal calcifications. We present a case of isolated fetal ascites diagnosed at 32 weeks of gestation, with negative work-up for immune and non-immune hydrops fetalis and congenital infections and malformations. After delivery, the diagnosis of wolman disease was established. Although rare, storage diseases such as wolman disease should be considered in cases of isolated fetal ascites. ( info)

7/22. Familial spinal xanthomatosis with sitosterolemia.

    A family with multiple spinal xanthomas and sitosterolemia is described. A 48-year-old woman presented with paraplegia due to multiple intradural extramedullary tumors. The patient also showed marked tendon xanthomas and analysis of sterol composition in both plasma and the xanthoma established the diagnosis of the rare inherited metabolic disease, sitosterolemia and xanthomatosis. Two other siblings in the family presented with marked tendon xanthomas and coronary atherosclerosis, but did not show any neurological signs or symptoms. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study revealed multiple intradural extramedullary tumors in spinal canals of the proband and her sister, but not in the other affected sibling (brother). This is the first report of familial occurrence of multiple extramedullary spinal tumors due to the inherited metabolic abnormality. ( info)

8/22. Wolman's disease: ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings.

    Acid lipase deficiency which is an inborn error of lipid metabolism leads to an abnormal accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in many tissues. It is manifested in two clinical forms: Wolman's disease (WD) which is fatal in infancy and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) which is a milder form and usually presented in adulthood. An infant with a clinical diagnosis of WD was examined with CT and ultrasound. Where as CT showed an enlarged liver with decreased density and heavily calcified adrenal glands, ultrasound revealed an enlarged liver with normal echogenicity, adrenal calcification and thickening of bowel loops. Bowel wall thickening in WD was not demonstrated in the literature before with any imaging modality. ( info)

9/22. wolman disease: morphological, clinical and genetic studies on the first Scandinavian cases.

    On the Aland islands, a 1-month-old girl was diagnosed as having wolman disease. The diagnosis was confirmed neurochemically; a decreased activity of acid lipase was noted in the proband and her parents had typical carrier values. This is the first Scandinavian case reported. The skin biopsy revealed cytoplasmic accumulations identical to those noted in two sibs who highly probably had wolman disease during the 1950s. Both these sibs died at the age of about 3 months and presented a heavy accumulation of lipid material in lymph nodes, spleen, adrenal glands, liver, gut, and also some pathological alterations in other organs. Electron microscopic findings from deparaffinized samples showed cytoplasmic accumulation of lipid material similar to that noted in wolman disease. Genealogical analyses revealed that the index families had ancestors from the same restricted area and also common ancestors during the 17th century. The parents of the two affected sibs were born on a small island and were related in many different ways. On the basis of genealogical studies and other genetic investigations performed, the importance of founder and drift effect for manifestations of rare hereditary disorder in isolates is stressed. ( info)

10/22. wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease diagnosed by histological and ultrastructural examination of intestinal and liver biopsy.

    Deficient activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) results in massive accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in most tissues of the body. The deficiency state is expressed in two major phenotypes: wolman disease (WD) and cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). WD occurs in infancy and is nearly always fatal before the age of 1 year, whereas CESD can be more benign and may not be detected until adulthood. Since there are no specific routine laboratory observations that suggest these metabolic diseases, diagnosis is based on the clinical picture combined with LAL deficiency in cultured skin fibroblasts or peripheral lymphocytes. Both disorders are rather rare, considering that about a hundred of cases have been described up to now. This study describes the histological and ultrastructural aspects disclosed by intestinal or liver biopsy in three cases of WD and in two cases of CESD. Furthermore, it emphasizes the role of morphological findings in pointing the diagnosis towards a metabolic storage disease. ( info)
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