how many people died from cholera morbus in 1831?
i'm doing a history project on cholera morbus and wondered how many people died from in in the uk in the 1831 epedemic?
There were four epidemics of cholera in Britain during the middle of the 19th century (1831–2, 1848–9, 1853–4 and 1865–6).
First epidemic (1831–2)
Cholera arrived in Sunderland in 1831. There was no government department concerned with health matters so the problem was devolved on the Privy Council, which sent Army doctors who had experience of the disease to determine whether the outbreak there was due to cholera morbus or cholera nostra. There had been no major epidemic in Britain since the plague in the 17th-century, and when cholera morbus was confirmed the only action that presented itself to the Privy Council was to set up local Boards of Health and to consider arrangements for quarantine. The latter met with considerable opposition from trade and industry because of the cost and inconvenience involved. A large body of medical opinion that had initially agreed that the disease was cholera morbus then changed its mind, probably because of pressure from those whose incomes depended on a freedom to trade.
By the end of December 1831 there had been 418 cases recognised as cholera in the Sunderland area, with 437 deaths. Durey6 suggested that it was the absence of sanitary cordons that allowed cholera to break out of Sunderland. In January 1832, cholera moved to Newcastle, Gateshead and North Shields, where there were 1330 cases, 437 of which proved fatal. The infection travelled south, spreading out to York, Leeds, Manchester, Hull and Liverpool.
From Manchester, cholera passed to the Black Country – the heavily industrialised coalfields north-west of Birmingham and so-called because of the grime associated with that industry. The effects there were little short of catastrophic. In one town, Bilston, there were 3568 cases and 693 deaths. In other Black Country towns the number of deaths varied from 50 to over 200. It is of interest, however, that Birmingham, the largest industrial town in the area, suffered only 21 deaths.
In the west, cholera had reached Bristol by mid-July and Devon and Cornwall by the autumn. In view of the conditions of the roads and canals, as well as the primitive state of railways at the time, the disease most probably travelled by overland routes. This would account for the time taken for infected persons or contaminated goods to travel from the Sunderland area to other parts of the country. It is most likely, however, that cholera was brought to London and the south-east by sea. The best way of moving coal from Newcastle to London was by coastal vessels that sailed up the Thames and Medway estuaries. These vessels also carried passengers.
In February 1832, the government's Cholera Gazette announced that: "It becomes our painful duty to announce the existence of malignant cholera in the metropolis". The first cases of cholera in London occurred in the Rotherhithe and Limehouse areas. The disease then spread along both sides of the river to Lambeth, Southwark and Chelsea.7 It reached the Smithfield area on 9 February, with a further 10 cases reported within a week. By 21 March there had been 1031 cases in the City parishes, 538 of which proved fatal. The official returns for London showed 9172 cases and 4218 deaths. By the end of the year, however, the epidemic had ended. (+ info
Why does a Cholera vaccine only contain cholera poison and not the cholera bacteria?
People can be injected with a vaccine against cholera. The vaccine contains a tiny amount of the cholera poison and NOT the cholera bacteria. As a result people become immune to cholera. But what i don't get is how does the vaccine make a person immune to cholera if they use the poison but not the bacteria? Please help =]
It's the poison that cholera bacteria produce that makes people ill. By giving someone a little bit of the poison, their immune system can get use to it and remember how to make it harmless in the future. This gives the person immunity to cholera.
If you were to inject someone with cholera, they might develop full-blown cholera since the bacteria would reproduce and make a much larger amount of poison before their body learned how to cope.
So to summarise, it's safer to give someone a controlled amount of the poison (which is what causes the symptoms anyway) for them to get immune to it than giving them a shot of bacteria.
A side note - I think I read somewhere that cholera immunity only lasts for a few months. Not sure if this is of interest or not. (+ info
Can someone please tell me what would happen if an infant contracted Cholera?
I can't find much on the internet about it. I want to know what the treatment would be for an infant. A woman just a few houses away from us has Cholera and believes she got it from mowing the ditch where sewage has been seen. THAT is a different story that I really don't feel like getting into at the moment. Our whole community is under a lawsuit for faulty septic tanks. Any info will be appreciated. Thanks =)
I live in Southeast Texas about 50 miles south of Houston.
The treatment would be lots of fluids, isotonic fluids like pedialyte. Possibly antibiotics. What kills you is the dehydration. It rarely kills anyone with access to medical care. (+ info
who is currently trying to find a cure for cholera?
My school is doing a project on Cholera, and a question we need ot answer is 'who is currently trying to fina a cure for cholera'. Can you help?
Cholera is pretty easy to cure.
Rehydration & antibiotics do the trick:
https://www.who.int/topics/cholera/treatment/en/index.html (+ info
How much infected water do you gave to drink to get cholera?
Is there a specific amount of infected water that you have to drink to contract cholera (ex. 1 pint). I'm assuming it depends on how much bacteria are in the water, but it there a general amount you have to drink? Thanks in advance!
let me rephrase this: i know 1 million v. cholera have to be consumed to get cholera, so how much water is that?
There is no way to know this without counting the cfu in the water. Sorry. (+ info
Is cholera only transmitted through ingestion of dirty water and there is no risk by skin contact ?
Don't people get infected by cholera if they wear wading suits and get in contact with dirty water or work in rivers but no ingestion or drinking that water is involved?
No you have to ingest the water cholera is not spread from person to person from casual contact (+ info
Explain why Vibrio cholera can live in human intestines, shell fish, independently in water and marine animals?
Explain why Vibrio cholera can live in human intestines, shell fish, independently in water and marine animals.
Many bacteria, including the vibrios, have the ability to live in diverse habitats. Vibrio cholerae is a marine bacterium that normally lives in seawater and brackish water and marine sediment and in or on marine animals and plants. If it gains access to humans via drinking water or eating raw or undercooked seafood or via an open wound, it can cause gastroenteritis or cholera and wound infections. (+ info
When did the Cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe first start?
I know that there are now about 800 deaths but i was wondering how lond this has been going on for.
Cholera is present in the region; endemic.
People have to realise that just because the media hasn't reported it, doesn't mean it wasn't there before we saw the epidemic on the news.
Also, the figures are almost certainly underestimates, as many (most?) people who are sick in rural areas for example cannot access mainstream medical care.
The media has been focusing on water access in relation to this outbreak, but sanitation and hygiene play at least as big a part (if not bigger) in the spread of cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases.
Final point: the case fatality ratio is extremely high in Zimbabwe. Cholera, in a healthy person, is usually self-limiting, and about 1-4% (if that) of people die from it. However, in a population where over 40% are under-nourished, and HIV prevalence is about 1 in 3, we are seeing a very high mortality rate from a disease which is both preventable and treatable (re-hydration and in extreme cases, antibiotics).
Shame on humanity. (+ info
what percentage of the population gets cholera annually in afghanistan?
I need to know for a project, also include a source, i need by tommorow please. The first GOOD AND ACCURATE answer gets the best answer vote.
Source: World Health Organization (WHO)
Date: 21 Jun 2005
Cholera in Afghanistan
How many people roughly die of Cholera in Afghanistan?
It is very hard to say because in most places you don't get lab results. We can only do estimates. Every year there are outbreaks throughout the country but not necessarily in Kabul where the health facilities are good and where there is the ability to put preventive measures into place. Essentially, you can only confirm Cholera through laboratory results under clinical observation so when we have been able to receive lab results from Islamabad and we know that there is Cholera we have to implement these control measures immediately because it can spread like wildfire otherwise.
Source: World Health Organization (WHO)
Date: 21 Jun 2005 (+ info
How does cholera attack and spread in the body?
I know it comes from contaminated water but then how does the vibrio cholerae cause the diarrhea and vomiting to occur, and so quickly too?
Cholera is an acute illness characterized by watery diarrhea. The toxin released by the bacteria causes increased secretion of water and chloride ions in the intestine, which can produce massive diarrhea. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.
Most of the V. cholerae bacteria in the water that a potential host drinks do not survive the very acidic conditions of the human stomach. But the few bacteria that manage to survive the stomach's acidity conserve their energy and stored nutrients during the perilous passage through the stomach by shutting down much protein production. When the surviving bacteria manage to exit the stomach and reach the favorable conditions of the small intestine, they need to propel themselves through the thick mucus that lines the small intestine to get to the intestinal wall where they can thrive. So they start up production of the hollow cylindrical protein flagellin to make flagella, the curly whip-like tails that they rotate to propel themselves through the pasty mucus that lines the small intestine.
Once the cholera bacteria reach the intestinal wall, they do not need the flagella propellers to move themselves any more, so they stop producing the protein flagellin, thus again conserving energy and nutrients by changing the mix of proteins that they manufacture, responding to the changed chemical surroundings. And on reaching the intestinal wall, they start producing the toxic proteins that give the infected person a watery diarrhea which carries the multiplying and thriving new generations of V. cholerae bacteria out into the drinking water of the next host—if proper sanitation measures are not in place. (+ info
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