What happens to foreign bodies in your eye?
It sometimes happens that you got insects or food parts in your eye, but after a minute or two it looks like nothing happened! Even if you don't know to have removed the foreign body ...
Foreign objects in the eye usually are flushed out through the natural blinking and tearing action of the eye. (+ info
Do white blood cells attack foreign bodies like tapeworms or other parasitic worms?
And if they do, what damage do they do to the worm, if any? What defenses do worms have against the immune system?
Absolutely yes. You even have a specialized subset of cells to deal with parasites (called Th2 cells which are a version of helper T cells).
First of all, not all parasites reside in the gut. There are many examples of parasites that can infiltrate the tissue (schistosomiasis), or even get inside cells (malaria or trypanosoma). Furthermore, while gut parasites are harder for the immune system to deal with if they stay in the lumen (the open space in the gut as opposed to inside the tissue of the gut lining), it does still have ways to address these parasites.
T cells come in two major varieties, helper and cytotoxic. Cytotoxic T cells kill pathogens directly and are usually involved in viral responses. Helper T cells do just what their name implies, they help activate other immune cells such as B-cells. There are subdivisions of helper T-cells specialized to activate immune responses tailored towards fighting different types of infections. The Th2 cells is specialized in activating a response against parasites and extracellular bacteria It helps by turning on B-cells that produce large quantities of antibodies. These antibodies can latch on to parasites and act as bull's-eyes for other immune cells that don't have the ability to recognize the parasite on their own. This directs the brunt of the immune system onto a parasite.
In the gut, several immune cells are able to mount a response against lumenal parasites. Cells like dendritic cells are able to extend long projections of their membrane into the intestine past vili (the ruffles you see on the wall of the intestine). These projections can grab pieces of parasites and pull them into the tissue. This alerts other immune cells like special cut cytotoxic T cells that can release toxic components into the gut or direct lyse part of the parasite if it comes into contact with the wall of the intestine.
There are several mechanisms parasites use to avoid killing. First is their membrane. Many parasites have cellular membranes that are more resilient than your typical bacterium. This means that the killing mechanisms employed by the immune response will not be enough to cut the parasite open. For large parasites like tapeworms, having a segmented body allows them to survive even if one part is destroyed. This means that unless all segments of such a worm are simultaneously in contact with the intestinal wall and killed at the same time, at least some of the tapeworm will survive and propagate itself. In addition, parasites often have a part of their life cycle where they can remain dormant like a seed. If the immune response becomes to much, they may enter this state, which the immune system does not recognize. Once the response dissipates, the parasite may come out of this dormant state and resume infection. (+ info
which bronchial structure is most susceptible to aspiration of foreign bodies?
Right lower mainstem bronchus (+ info
how does our immune system fight foreign bodies?
Our immune system is regulated by the following way;
First line defense- It is achieved by the means of intact skin and mucous membrane.The intact skin keeps most of the infection at the bay like it happens in HIV.The mucous membrane in the respiratory tract and the nasal tract traps most of the organism hence, further gain down into the system is mostly prevented.There are secretions in our body contain special types of enzymes that also kill bacteria.Eg;Tears contain the enzyme called Lysozyme.
Second line defense - Once, the first line defense is failed , then ,a cascade of immune response is triggered by the specialised cells of our body and by the white blood cells.Fever,as an active response to any initial infection, prevents multiplication of the bug and kills certain micro organism.
White blood cells chiefly involve in this kind of reaction.Monocyte is a type of white blood cell ,which mainly invoves in engulfing and killing the micro organism.The white cell also produce antibodies against the particular organism ,hence our body ready to fight against the particular infection in future.(Active immunity)
Lymphocytes are the other important white cells that regulate the specific immune response by producing antibodies and specific memory cells.The antobodies produced by this mechnism are very specific to the particular organism.That is, if the person has already developed antibodies against chickenpox, he or she is not necessarily immuned against smallpox.
Apart from the fact mentioned above,you regulate the immune sytem by actively vaccinating yourself against the particular disease .eg; polio vaccine.
And by, receiving specific type of immunoglobulin from your mom from the breast feed(passive immunity).But, it lasts only shorter duration like 3-4 months.
Hope, it helps
Regards, (+ info
Surgery for foreign bodies removal from knee area?
A year back my aged mother slipped & felt down, her leg
completely folded back side, due to the force there were
small bone breakages below the knew area of front and back side (not from knee cap). Which are termed as foreign bodies. Initial 4-5 months gone well with light pains, after examining with a orthopedic consultant found these foreign bodies in reports. Upon doctor gave some medicines and advised if the medicines will not work to reduce the pain, surgery is the option. Since last four month her pains increased if she takes the medicines then pain will stay time being.
In-fact she is aged 65yrs, a BP patient and after my father’s passing away she is pillar of our family. We are in dilemma over the surgery, questions fears in our mind whether she will bear the surgery? will it be cured after surgery? can she walk normally? etc.
Can anyone help me out here please? We'd really grateful to them. If any good hospital at HYDERABAD-India, please be suggested. Sincere thanks,
I had that type of surgery 7 years ago and it wasn't that bad. It did hurt like heck for about 2 weeks but I can't take pain killers so I had a tougher time than most. I limped for about 2 weeks and then it started to get better. Her being 65 will increase the healing time but not by much. As long as she is in generally good health, she should be fine. They do it orthoscopically and it is a quick and easy surgery. I was in and out in 3 hours and back home to recover.
I don't know of any hospitals there... Sorry. (+ info
What are the usual causes of having a foreign body in the knee joint?
BF knocked knee badly and has been diagnosed with the above - they are going to drain it out (presumably under local anaesthetic?) next week. He banged it badly. Is the foreign body likely to be a piece of dislodged bone or tissue? Or something else? He didn't cut it, so it doesn't seem that anything (like a wood splinter for example) went in at the time. Being a chap he was in great pain and didn't ask too many questions at the time - so grateful for any medical advice :)
Will undoubtedly be a piece of torn cartilage. The op is minor - small incisions no bigger than 7mm to take small endoscopic camera & 1 or 2 small hooks via other holes, to manipulate what needs to be removed or cut out. The surgeon watches the proceedings on a TV monitor - anything floating is washed out, anything torn is trimmed. Fluid inserted during surgery is then drained & a bandage applied. Take things easy for a few days depending on actual advice given after. (+ info
Can an std live on a foreign object outside the human body?
Can an std live on a foreign object outside the human body?
i steped on a used condum and was walking in my house. then my brother dropped his towel where i stepped and put it back on where his u know what is. cn he risk getting an std? pretend the condum had stds. i stepped on it about 2.5 weeks ago the towell thing happened today.
yes, in fact i have an umbrella stand with herpes (+ info
foreign bodies in food ??
whats the most gruesome thing youv'e found that shouldn't be there in either your take-away or prepacked/restaurant meal ?
a fingernail in my paella in a spanish restaurant once, eeeewwww (+ info
Whether a very fine foreign body particle can cause damage to retina similar to that caused by diabetes?
When I was very young, during an accidental blast of firecrackers few fine particles of powder have embedded in my left eye causing blurry vision. I have also been suffering from diabetes for last 15 years and the vision is quite distorted. The docs are reluctant to believe that a foreign body can remain & cause the initial damage and say that this is entirely due to diabetes and are advising further treatment based solely on this assumption. Is there any method to know exact nature & cause of it?
I'm afraid I've got to agree with J B. Not only is it different parts of the eye that are affected, but the damage would be different too.
Diabetic retinopathy tends to cause a build up of fatty deposits or blood vessels that protrude through the retina, causing multiple 'blind spots', or areas where images can't be determined. I don't see how particles of powder could cause similar injuries.
Be guided by your physician, my friend. I've been receiving laser treatment to both of my eyes for over 20 years now, and I'm quite convinced that without it I'd have lost some, if not all, of my sight due to the ravages of diabetes by now.
Be well. (+ info
What is the medical term for a foreign object impaled in a body?
Is there a term for it besides what the object actually is (nail, knife, spear, etc)?
a protrudent object (+ info
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