FAQ - Hematologic Neoplasms
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What is the connection between malignant neoplasms and crabs?


The more common term for malignant neoplasms, cancer, is Latin for crab, and the word "carcinogen," meaning a cancer-causing agent, comes from the Greek word for crab, "karkinos." What is the connection between these two seemingly unrelated things?
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Cancer, both the disease and the astronomical constellation, derive from the Latin cancer or cancrum, meaning crab. The astrological sign, of course, is said to resemble a crab and the disease was so named by the ancient Greek physician Galen (129-200 A.D.) who noted the similarity between a certain type of tumor with a crab as well—the swollen veins around the tumor resembling the legs of a crab.

Old English adopted cancer directly from Latin and used it for a variety of spreading sores and ulcers. This early sense survives in the modern word canker. From c.1000 in a manuscript called Læce Boc (Leech Book), collected in Oswald Cockayne’s Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England, Vol. II, 1865:

Gemeng wið þam dustum, clæm on ðone cancer.
(Mix with the dust, smear on the cancer.)

And from Wyclif’s 2 Timothy, 1382:

The word of hem crepith as a kankir

The word was being applied specifically to the disease we today call cancer by the beginning of the 17th century. From Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Historie of the World:

Cancer is a swelling or sore comming of melancholy bloud, about which the veins appeare of a blacke or swert colour, spread in manner of a Creifish clees.

The astronomical sense of cancer is from the Latin name for the constellation of the crab. The name was known to the Anglo-Saxons, but only as a Latin name and was not assimilated into English until the Middle English period. It appears in Ælfric’s De Temporibus Anni, written c.993, in a list of the constellations of the Zodiac:

Feorða • Cancer • þæt is Crabba
(Fourth, Cancer, that is the crab.)

The Anglicized name appears c.1391 in Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe:

In this heved of cancer is the grettist declinacioun northward of the sonne...this signe of cancre is clepid the tropik of Somer.
(At this first point (head) of cancer is the greatest declination northward of the sun…this sign of cancer is named the tropic of summer.)

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)  (+ info)

What is the basis of differing actions of antineoplastic agents on different tissue/neoplasms?


What is the basis for differing tissue- and neoplasm-specificites of antieoplastic chemotherapeutic agents? This doubt arose because considering what the pharmacokinetics of these drugs are it remains to be answered as to why a certain agent would act only in a particular tissue or neoplasm when the mechanisms they employ are so similar, e.g., various alkylating agents in spite having same action act of different tumors with differing degrees of effectiveness. Hope someone answers the question specifically. Useful links to free-text articles would also be highly appreciated. Bye. TC.
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If you have thoughts on this subject, you ought to have the initiative to research it yourself.  (+ info)

how does isoniazid causes hematologic dysfunction?


as per drug information about isoniazid, some of its adverse drug reactions is agranulocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia. how can it cause these hematologic dysfunctions?
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GENERIC NAME: ISONIAZID ( INH)
BRAND NAME(S): Niazid
INH; Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide

This medication is used to prevent and treat tuberculosis.

Rarely, this medication has caused severe (sometimes fatal) liver problems (e.g.,fatal hepatitis)
As with all drugs; it can cause enlargement of the liver or liver dysfunctions/problems. . This drug can cause hepatoxicity.

One of the main functions of the liver is clearance of waste products, drugs, and toxins. . In addition, the liver metabolizes most hormones and ingested drugs to either more or less active products.

Nearly all drugs are modified or degraded in the liver. In particular, oral drugs are absorbed by the gut and transported via the portal circulation to the liver. In the liver, drugs may undergo first-pass metabolism, a process in which they are modified, activated, or inactivated before they enter the systemic circulation, or they may be left unchanged.

Alcohol is primarily metabolized by the liver, and accumulation of its products can lead to cell injury and death.

In patients with liver disease, drug detoxification and excretion may be dangerously altered, resulting in drug concentrations that are too low or too high or the production of toxic drug metabolites. Therefore, medications that are metabolized by the liver must be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease; these patients may need lower doses of the drug.

Thus this drug may cause thrombocytopenia ( low platelet count) or agranulocytosis( low WBC count).and hemolysis or destruction of blood cells and low production of RBC ( RBC is produced in the liver ) resulting in anemia.



  (+ info)

How can fatigue affect the quality of life of a person suffering from anemia and other hematologic disease?


Greetings, well it affects your life because you are so tired and run down feeling. If your count gets really low you can fall asleep at the wheel of the car or even die.

I have lymphedema, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, anemia, thyroid and other issues and I have to tell you, being tired all the time is no picnic. You have to weigh the odds of doing things.

For me, I have to decide whether I want to go shopping or to a party or even clean house on any given day because it wipes you out to the point you have to go to bed and sleep. I don't have much of a social life because of all the chronic conditions. I have to get B complex shots all the time to try to fight the anemia and the worse part is not knowing why I have it. What did cancer or treatments do to me to cause it?  (+ info)

What are the harmful effects from small benign neoplasms arising from endocrine organs on the patient?


Give positive answers...
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Get to know them better. This is not a task only to be accomplished through dating. The more you get to know him or her, the more you can tell if you like them as a friend or something else. Just talk and do fun activities with the person.
Stop and consider why you like the person. There are many physically attractive and smart people out there. But if you see something beyond that really catches your attention, you've marked this person as unique and probably like them. Why else would they stand out from so many?
Consider how many times you think about the person. If you find yourself thinking about this person several times a day, and they are happy thoughts that possibly make your heart beat faster, then you probably like them.
Think how often you laugh at their jokes etc. When you like someone, you will find yourself laughing at things even if they aren't that funny. This is a natural attempt to make them feel appreciated.
If the one conversation between you and the person is stuck in you head and you cant stop telling people about it. this means it was important to you, and you probably like the person.
Consider how much you try to be near them. If you've planned your walking speed to catch a glimpse of them as many times of the day as possible, there is a good reason for that.
Think about how you feel if you touch him or her, by accident or on purpose. If you're still thinking about brushing shoulders several hours ago in school, then that is a special thought and you probably like them.
If you feel you're ready for a relationship, and are confident enough for a positive response, then just go ahead and ask them out. If you're unsure of their feelings for you, there are several wikihows on how to tell if someone likes you.  (+ info)

term used to describe benign neoplasms made up of neurons and nerve fibers is a?


need some help with my h.w.
thanks!
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Neuroma

In the foot, check out this site...
http://www.footphysicians.com/footankleinfo/mortons-neuroma.htm  (+ info)

When can a tumor be non-cellular or non-neoplastic? And how can some neoplasms be cell free?


So basically, I've got a bio midterm tomorrow, and so in the process of studying, I realized I completely don't get that! Even my bio friends are like, what....? So if ANYONE can help us out here, that would be fantastic! Thanks!
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The word tumor is defined (in Answers.com) as "An abnormal growth of tissue resulting from uncontrolled, progressive multiplication of cells and serving no physiological function; a neoplasm." So your teacher is playing with semantics here.

The only way a "mass" could be non-cellular would be if it were cystic - - a contained area of fluid. We see this with some ovarian tumors which may be benign or malignant. The benign ones are ovarian serous cystadenomas or mucinous cystadenomas which can be quite large tumor masses. These do contain cells however in the membranous sacs surrounding the fluid
http://www.mypacs.net/cases/MUCINOUS-CYSTADENOMA-OVARY-857115.html  (+ info)

What are two hematologic diseases that cause high HgB?


Polycythemia vera  (+ info)

Please explain what sudden cardiovascular or hematologic collapse means?


Sudden cardiovascular collapse (or arrest) means the heart suddenly stop pumping. This is the condition when we need to start the CPR (caodiopulmonary resuscitation) - which consists of chest compressions and breathing support through the mouth. If the CPR and further management is started early, the patient is most likely to survive. But if the help came late, he might suffer from permanent brain damage due to inadequeate oxygen supply to the brain and other organs during the collapse.

Also sometimes called as hemodynamic collapse.

Hematologic collapse on the other hand means disruption in normal blood production system. It may occur in blood disorder patient (leukemia/ lymphoma/ etc) whereby the abnormal cells replacing the normal cells giving rise to severe conditions.  (+ info)

What do you call a benign neoplasm arising from adipose tissue?


What do you call a benign neoplasm arising from adipose tissue?
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A fatty lipoma?  (+ info)

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