FAQ - Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
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Does hemolytic urimic syndrome scars the kidney when infected?

If a person has HUS, they are experiencing ACUTE renal failure. It can become chronic if the patient does not receive proper care.

However, with adequate supportive care, approximately 85% of patients recover, regain normal kidney function, and have no further related medical concerns.  (+ info)

What is Uremic Hemolitic Syndrome?

Can anyone give me the exact definition?



Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease primarily of infancy and early childhood. It is characterized by the triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. Diarrhea and upper respiratory infection are the most common precipitating factors. HUS is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children. The term HUS was first used by Gasser and coworkers in 1955, when they described an acute fatal syndrome in children that featured hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and severe renal failure.

In children, HUS often follows a prodromal infectious disease, usually diarrhea (90%) and less often an upper respiratory infection (10%). Use of antimotility drugs may increase the risk of developing HUS. The most common cause of HUS is a toxin produced by Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7. Additional agents include Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Campylobacter species. The shiga and shigalike toxins, produced by some strains of Shigella dysenteriae and E coli O157:H7, respectively, have been associated with approximately 70% of cases of HUS in children. Because of the cytotoxic activity of these toxins on vero cells, they are referred to as verotoxins. Transmission of E coli O157:H7 appears to be caused by contaminated food, such as ground beef and other cattle products that are undercooked, and unpasteurized dairy products. Food contaminated with E coli does not look, smell, or taste bad.
Person-to-person contact, as well as contamination of public water supplies, may also have a role in the transmission of this bacterium. E coli is normal flora in the gastrointestinal tracts of some healthy cattle, and children can contract it by petting a cow.

HUS is also associated with viruses, including varicella, echovirus, and coxsackie A and B, as well as other infectious agents such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Clostridium difficile. HUS has also been associated with AIDS, cancer, and the administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Mitomycin C is the most common chemotherapeutic agent associated with HUS. Malignancies found in conjunction with HUS include prostatic, gastric, and pancreatic malignancies. Some have suggested that HUS is mediated by immune complexes. Some cases of HUS are familial, which may reflect a genetic or human leukocyte antigen (HLA)–type predisposition.

HUS is subdivided into 2 forms, depending on whether the patient has had diarrhea (D+ HUS and D- HUS). D- HUS, which accounts for 10% of HUS cases, is sometimes referred to as atypical HUS. Although it is not associated with shiga toxin-producing E coli, it is still characterized by the triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure.

HUS and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) represent different ends of what is probably the same disease continuum. Endothelial cell injury appears to be the primary event in the pathogenesis of these disorders. The endothelial damage triggers a cascade of events that result in microvascular lesions with platelet-fibrin hyaline microthrombi that occlude arterioles and capillaries. The platelet aggregation results in a consumptive thrombocytopenia. The epithelial damage may result from toxins released by bacteria or viruses. In TTP, the hyaline microthrombi occur throughout the microcirculation, and microvascular thromboses may be found in the brain, skin, intestines, skeletal muscle, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and heart. On the other hand, in HUS, microthrombi are essentially confined to the kidneys. Many of the infectious agents and drugs implicated in HUS/TTP are toxic to the vascular endothelium.

Although the vascular lesions are identical in HUS and TTP, involvement of the CNS predominates in TTP. As in TTP, DIC is not found. In contrast to TTP, the pathology remains essentially localized to the kidney, where hyaline thrombi are seen in the afferent arterioles and glomerular capillaries. Thrombi are not present in other vessels, and neurologic symptoms, other than those associated with uremia, are uncommon. Hence, renal involvement is the defining feature of HUS. On gross examination, the kidneys are swollen and pale; many fleabite hemorrhages are on the surface. Vasculitis is usually absent.

More recently, attention has focused on ADAMTS13 levels, which are normal in HUS but depressed in TTP. ADAMTS13 is a Von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease and, in the future, assay for this enzyme may be useful in distinguishing between TTP and HUS.

Recurrences of HUS have been reported, and they are noted to have a mortality rate of 30%.

Comparisons Between HUS, TTP, and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC  (+ info)

What is the name of the syndrome that the person may appear to have facial characteristics of down's syndrome?

I previously watched a documentary about sufferers of a syndrome whose facial features appeared to be down's syndrome but it wasn't down's syndrome. The grow to be quite large adults and have special needs. Does anyone know the name of this condition?

Klinefelter syndrome  (+ info)

Are there different types of Down syndrome and what areas of the body does Down syndrome affect? ?

Also, are there any significant statistics related to Down syndrome? Has Down syndrome received any recent attention from the media? Are there any famous people that have Down syndrome.
Answer as many of the above questions as possible.

There are three types of Down syndrome, garden variety Trisomy 21, mosaicism and translocation.

Read more at:

Welcoming Babies with Down Syndrome (English, Spanish, French)

There is a slide show that also incorporates videos of the featured 'More Alike than Different' cast at the National Down Syndrome Congress website:


And great information at the National Down Syndrome Society website:
Down Syndrome Fact Sheet

You might also enjoy

Margaret's Guide to Down Syndrome

For bios of actors with Down syndrome, see:

Down Syndrome and the Acting Gene


DS in Arts and Media


Michael Johnson


Sujeet Desai

Down Syndrome Links at the Family Village website

Check out this recent New York Times article:

The DNA Age: Prenatal Test Puts Down Syndrome in Hard Focus

Have fun with your research!
  (+ info)

What is so bad about having down syndrome?

I think people are a lot colder than they want you to believe. Too many pregnancies prediagnosed with down syndrome are terminated! Doctors tell people that their kid will be like some animal and people believe them. I've met my share of people with down syndrome, and they all seem pretty human to me. On top of that, they were all decent folks, which is a lot more than I can say for the general population. And how does knowing that unborn children are purged because of down syndrome affect those who were born and have down syndrome?

WOW!! I'm so glad that there are other people who's lives have been touched as mine has. See when I was 28 I gave birth to twin girls and one of them was born with Mosaic down syndrome. Of course, I didn't know much about it til now....and yes I was shocked. They are 14 months old now, and such a blessing as well as my two boys. My daughter is about 4 months behind in her milestones, but she is always so happy! Out of all my kids she is the easiest to handle.

It's always nice to have other people, who see that they are more alike, then different from the rest of us.  (+ info)

What is the syndrome called when you cannot feel physical pain?

I remember watching a show a long time ago, and this one little girl was born with a syndrome where she could never feel pain. If she fell on the floor and cut her knee, she wouldn't cry, whereas most children would.

What is this called? Is it a syndrome? Is it a medical condition? I just want to know what it's called, and I can do the research on it.

It is for a story I am writing but I don't entirely know what it is.

It's called "congenital insensitivity to pain"  (+ info)

What syndrome would someone have that the doctor would need to put them on bloodthinners?

My sister is 18 and just moved out here from MN to go to school. She has had many medical problems and been to several doctors. She recently told me that the doctor said there was something wrong with her blood and she needs to be put on blood thinners for the rest of her life. What syndrome could this be?

There are several, but the first that comes to mind is Factor-V (five).  (+ info)

What is the syndrome where boys usually grow more than average?

I think it is Jacobs syndome.. XYY syndrome.. but wikipedia says that is only a little more than average. what is the only where they get really big ?

Yes it is called gigantism. It is caused by a tumour or either a chromosome disorder. Another thing that causes gigantism is the inability to inhib the GH (growth hormone) when it is produced. This is why the people who have it get very TALL.  (+ info)

Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome where in Philippines can i get a help?


I need some help with Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome. My mom thinks she has this Adrenal Fatigue Syndrome and needs a doctor to confirm this. Where in the Philippines can I find help or what type of doctor she should see? Do you know one? Please advice


  (+ info)

What are the chances of my children having Tourette syndrome?

Im planning to have a family in the future. Both of us dont have this syndrome. However, her mother does from her grandpa. Only blinking eyes. What are the chances of passing this on? Also, if it is passed on would it only be blinking eyes or could it be other symptoms of this same syndrome?

Were you aware that there is a National Tourette Syndrome Association? I would suggest contacting them and asking these questions.  (+ info)

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