FAQ - Mammary Neoplasms, Animal
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What is the connection between malignant neoplasms and crabs?

The more common term for malignant neoplasms, cancer, is Latin for crab, and the word "carcinogen," meaning a cancer-causing agent, comes from the Greek word for crab, "karkinos." What is the connection between these two seemingly unrelated things?

Cancer, both the disease and the astronomical constellation, derive from the Latin cancer or cancrum, meaning crab. The astrological sign, of course, is said to resemble a crab and the disease was so named by the ancient Greek physician Galen (129-200 A.D.) who noted the similarity between a certain type of tumor with a crab as well—the swollen veins around the tumor resembling the legs of a crab.

Old English adopted cancer directly from Latin and used it for a variety of spreading sores and ulcers. This early sense survives in the modern word canker. From c.1000 in a manuscript called Læce Boc (Leech Book), collected in Oswald Cockayne’s Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England, Vol. II, 1865:

Gemeng wið þam dustum, clæm on ðone cancer.
(Mix with the dust, smear on the cancer.)

And from Wyclif’s 2 Timothy, 1382:

The word of hem crepith as a kankir

The word was being applied specifically to the disease we today call cancer by the beginning of the 17th century. From Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Historie of the World:

Cancer is a swelling or sore comming of melancholy bloud, about which the veins appeare of a blacke or swert colour, spread in manner of a Creifish clees.

The astronomical sense of cancer is from the Latin name for the constellation of the crab. The name was known to the Anglo-Saxons, but only as a Latin name and was not assimilated into English until the Middle English period. It appears in Ælfric’s De Temporibus Anni, written c.993, in a list of the constellations of the Zodiac:

Feorða • Cancer • þæt is Crabba
(Fourth, Cancer, that is the crab.)

The Anglicized name appears c.1391 in Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe:

In this heved of cancer is the grettist declinacioun northward of the sonne...this signe of cancre is clepid the tropik of Somer.
(At this first point (head) of cancer is the greatest declination northward of the sun…this sign of cancer is named the tropic of summer.)

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)  (+ info)

Moderate inhomogeneity of the mammary parenchyma bilaterally?

I got my mammogram yesterday, Can anyone tell me what this means.
" Moderate inhomogeneity of the mammary parenchyma bilaterally " I can't reach my doc to ask him. Any info will be greatly appreciated.

Thank you !

it literally means the appearance of the breast tissues(parenchyma) seen on the xray is not "homogeneous" ie all the same throughout. that is not necessarily a bad thing. just wait and talk to your doctor to be sure if its anything clinically significant.  (+ info)

Mammary arteries provide blood to what parts of the body besides the breasts and heart bypass?

What happens to the body if you have very poor mammary blood circulation? Dryer skin? Smaller breast? Less sweat? Less energy? What

The Internal Thoracic Artery (or, as it used to be known (and surgeons still know it), the Mammary Artery), supplies the breasts, all the intercostal muscles (the muscles used for breathing, between your ribs), both directly, and also through the Musculophrenic Artery lower down. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musculophrenic_artery), in addition, it feeds your abdominal muscles with the Superior Epigastric Artery (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superior_epigastric_artery), through which your pubic area gains its blood.

As an artery, having poor circulation in the ITA would be very serious, as it would starve your intercostal muscles of oxygen, and could potentially mean breathing difficulties.I don't believe you'd sweat less, as if anything your heart would have to work harder to pump blood (the artery itself should push blood along by themselves (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anatomy_artery.png)).
I can't believe it would have any influence on the dryness of the epidermis, which I suspect is controlled more by the content of the blood, rather than the pressure. As to less energy, I suppose so, as without oxygen the cells fed by this artery would be unable to respire aerobically, so your abdomen and chest would have less energy.

However, I wouldn't be surprised if having "poor circulation" in the artery would be damaging to your respiratory system. However, I've never heard of poor circulation in an artery before. Are you sure you don't mean in a vein, for example the Internal Thoracic Vein (aka the Mammary Vein)?

Tom  (+ info)

How important is animal life to you?

Nice Guy Wrote in a previous question: “Matt has basically stated that animals are equally important as humans. I'm sorry, but no animals life has as much importance or relevance as that of a human. For one to think that an animals life is just as important as his own is absurd. Can anyone possibly believe that the life of a pig, cow, or chicken can even compare to the life of a human being?”

How do you feel about this? Does an animal's interest in living have any weight in our deciding how we treat said animal? How is an animal's interest in continued existence qualitatively any different than our own?

I'm not trying to give Nice Guy a hard time, I just think this is something that should be discussed, and his answer provides a good starting point.
We have some real deep thinkers responding so far.
Beebs' Answer sort of misses the point of this question. But to the point it does adress I could not agree more.
What I would like people to ponder is that animals have the same interest in their continued existence that you do yours. We have no morally relevant reason to respect a human's interest in continued life wile denying to afford animals the same consideration.
@ Niceguy, I wrote you a responce but it is too long to fit here. You can find it here: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/veggiefacts/message/58

Take care

@ Nice guy: I’m fairly disappointed in your last post. If you want to debate these issues then lets go. If not, then don’t pretend to engage in one and then back out mid discussion. You say “I believe my goal of simply reducing animal suffering to a minimum, is simply more realistic than that of abolishing it.” And I give you plenty of reasons (and there are plenty more) as to why that will never happen, which you make no attempt to address. You also say, “And though veganism can perhaps make a very small difference, I don't think it can, will, or ever has lead to any significant noticeable change.” I find this a very curious statement to make seeing as the term “Vegan” has only been around for about seventy years, and the theory of abolition has only been with us for thirty years. Animal welfare on the other hand has been around for at least two hundred years, or if you consider India then around 2000 would be more accurate...
I fail to see your historical basis for making the claim that Veganism and abolition cannot create change, it has not had the chance to. Finally, a Vegan diet (or very near Vegan diet) can work for everyone. Read the China Study. Also who are these “credible sources” that claim to be against a Vegan diet? Name names, I’m sure it would be interesting to see just how credible they really are.
First, in response to your comments regarding the health of Vegans, I used “very near vegan diet” in parentheses after the words “Vegan diet” The near Vegan diet was referring to Dr. Dean Ornish’s early work in reversing heart disease. The “Vegan diet” which appeared out of parentheses referenced all other works by prominent scientists such as, Dr. T Colin Campbell, and Dr. Neal Barnard. Even the American Dietetic Association agrees that a Vegan diet is completely healthy by saying, “Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy,
childhood and adolescence.”
Second, with regard to your “intuition” about the animal rights movement, I guess we are just expected to take your opinion because you do not “foresee” a radical change in people’s diet? I think you were right, we are done here in regards to Animal Rights Vs. Animal Welfare.
. You obviously are ignorant to even the most basic augments from each side, let alone the state of the movement and the struggle that is taking place for the grass-roots sections of the movement to beat back the corporate welfare groups that have done nothing but retard growth. In sum, your information about the healthfulness of Veganism is outdated at best, misinformed at worst, and your “intuition” about the possibilities and direction of the Animal Rights movement is just plain wrong.

I recently saw pictures of a Hurricane Katrina animal rescue. I saw houses that were destroyed, and next to the house, would be a dog, tied to a steak.... It made me SICK. Thinking of it now brings up so much anger in me. What kind of depraved person would do that. It was not as though there were seconds left, and they were going to be beamed out by Scottie in immediately. There was a long, slow evacuation process, and they left those animals to slowly die.

If your house is burning down, you try to save your animals. I will say though, that you save your children first. But you bring an animal into your house and under your protection, you better care for it.

I once had to do a report on the Psychology of Slavery for an African American Lit class. One thing I noticed through my reading was that slaves verbally lost their human status. They were often called animals. I decided to do an extensive survey about this, but the only group we verbally do such a thing to today is actual animals. We call one “pet” so we know to love them. The other we call “animal” so we can distinguish not to care about them and believe we have a right to torture and kill them. After the animal is killed, we call it “meat” so we never have to make any mental correlation.

My search was to find where we draw the line as we have done this to groups of people over and over again throughout history. I am just saying the same mental process people used to go through the African American Holocaust is the same mental process we use to make animal slaughtering ok today. It is something we click on and off, and the words we use to describe a being have a lot do to with it.

I had many categories in my survey, which I gave to the students in all my classes.
One section was “Animals.” I had questions such as:
“Would you eat a cow?”, “IF you were starving, would you kill a cow to eat?”
… eat a dog, starving, kill a dog, kill your OWN dog
I even went on to compare animals to people.

I found that many people, in a hypothetical world, would kill a human stranger before killing their own dog... and yet, would eat a dog if they needed food. Familiarity and how much we are willing to know about an animal has a great deal to do with things.

Another tool we use is how to condone such behavior is understanding. Understanding does not mean language, but culture. If we had not yet discovered the other hemisphere (I’m in the U.S.) and we set on a voyage to France. We would not be able to understand the language, but the culture would be similar enough to our own that we would consider them *like us* aka, civilized society.

If we went to a place where people lived of the land, half naked or naked, in small tribes (and we had not been exposed to this before) we would label them as *not like us,* uncivilized and animal like. This is historically accurate, so you know it is true.

We grow up with dogs. We can tell they understand us; culturally, we have come to understand when they are happy and sad; we have come to know they feel pain, and we feel for that pain. We know no such things of cows.

If human culture had made different choices in history and randomly decided to have cows or pigs living in their homes, and decided to eat dogs/wolves, then we would be giving our pet pigs presents on Christmas and have cats and dogs in factory farming without every questioning.

I am sorry I got so very very off track, I have just put a lot of thought into the value we place on life and its relationship to language and culture.

To answer your question, I believe life is important, and no living creature deserves to suffer needlessly. Yes, an antelope is going to suffer when a lioness or what have you kills it, but that death needed to happen. However, as a human, I suppose I do consider human life more important. If I was in a hypothetical situation where someone was going to kill me or kill my cat, I would choose my cat (sorry Simone!) But if it was kill me or kill my nephew, I would choose me. The optimal situation is of course that I save me, my cat and my nephew, but that’s not what hypotheticals are all about.

If the situation was torture however, I would have a difficult time condoning the torture of another at all.

What all this means on the grand scheme of things? I have no friggen clue. You wanted discussion, so I rambled my behind off like I have never rambled my behind off before.
Just email me if you want me to take this long rant off your question.


EDIT: Yes, I believe animals have the same interests in continuing to exist that I do. I believe they don't want to be tortured, and they don't want to die. (Who would?) I believe they protect their young; I believe they mourn; I believe they fear; I believe they suffer, and I believe they want.  (+ info)

Has anyone had an operation to treat chronic mammary fistula?

Hey, just found out that I've got a chronic mammary fistula which is causing me a lot of pain. A LOT! lol. anyway, my specialist said that I need an operation for it, and that it will be done under general anasthetic, but they wont be able to stitch up the wound afterwards incase infection occurs. I was just wondering if anybody has had this operation before, how long the recovery was, and how painful it was? Any other information would be great too.
Thanks heaps!

Haven't had the surgery, but you will probably have an open wound that you or a home health nurse will change a dressing on 1-2 times per day. I would think that this would last 1-2 weeks depending on how it heals. You will be given pain meds for after the surgery, I'm sure. You should take the meds as often as directed after the surgery & don't let yourself go until the pain is unbearable b/c then it will be harder to control. Get up, move around as soon as allowed, drink plenty of fluids, keep incision clean, etc These will all help the recovery process go smoothly
RN  (+ info)

What animal products are in which types of makeup?

I know that collagen is derived from boiled animal tendons and bones, and that it is used in lipstick. But I need to know what other animal products are used in what kinds of makeup.

^There's alot of animal ingredients used for makeup in there as well as alternatives to those ingredients. You can also google it to find more sites that would contain the information that you are looking for. :)  (+ info)

What is the basis of differing actions of antineoplastic agents on different tissue/neoplasms?

What is the basis for differing tissue- and neoplasm-specificites of antieoplastic chemotherapeutic agents? This doubt arose because considering what the pharmacokinetics of these drugs are it remains to be answered as to why a certain agent would act only in a particular tissue or neoplasm when the mechanisms they employ are so similar, e.g., various alkylating agents in spite having same action act of different tumors with differing degrees of effectiveness. Hope someone answers the question specifically. Useful links to free-text articles would also be highly appreciated. Bye. TC.

If you have thoughts on this subject, you ought to have the initiative to research it yourself.  (+ info)

What state has the largest animal agriculture?

I have to write an essay about the negative effects of animal agriculture but I have to be specific (geographically).
What state has the largest animal agriculture in the US?

More details about the topic would be great too!
Thank you.
Science & Mathematics > Agriculture

It depends on the type of animal.

According to the Cattle Network, the state with the most cattle ranches is Texas, which has over twice as many head of cattle as number 2- Kansas.

The states which kill the most pigs are Iowa and North Carolina.
North Carolina, Minnesota and California kill the most turkeys.
Alabama, Arkansas and Georgia kill the most chickens.  (+ info)

Is there a website that evaluates or tracks humane animal treatment for animals used for food?

My husband and I enjoy our meat but i am really disturbed at some of the horror stories I have heard or seen about animals being treated terribly if they are going to be used for food. I am backing cage free eggs 100% to make sure that they are not being mistreated. Now I am planning to get a turkey for Thanksgiving and I wanted to find out about the companies/farms that process the animal to make sure I am not supporting harm towards animals.

So basically I am wondering if there is a website that evaluates or digs into companies so I know which products to support or not support?

I appreciate any answers you may have

By killing something you are technically harming it. There is a lot of inaccurate information written on here with regards to farming of animals. Most farmers treat their animals well. By not treating them well, they lessen the price of the end product. That would be bad business. Milking cows are very content in their environment. They are well looked after. If you maltreat a cow she will stop milking due to stress.
I'm not saying there is no cruelty in this world. Heavens above, many humans maltreat other humans, but don't believe everything you read or hear.
I doubt you'll find a true and independent website with regards to your question.
I was an agricultural student years ago  (+ info)

Is a animal cracker a cracker or a cookie?

Is a animal cracker a cracker or a cookie. I mean look at the fact and the Characteristic.

I believe that the British call cookies "crackers", if I am not mistaken  (+ info)

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