FAQ - Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental
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What is the connection between malignant neoplasms and crabs?

The more common term for malignant neoplasms, cancer, is Latin for crab, and the word "carcinogen," meaning a cancer-causing agent, comes from the Greek word for crab, "karkinos." What is the connection between these two seemingly unrelated things?

Cancer, both the disease and the astronomical constellation, derive from the Latin cancer or cancrum, meaning crab. The astrological sign, of course, is said to resemble a crab and the disease was so named by the ancient Greek physician Galen (129-200 A.D.) who noted the similarity between a certain type of tumor with a crab as well—the swollen veins around the tumor resembling the legs of a crab.

Old English adopted cancer directly from Latin and used it for a variety of spreading sores and ulcers. This early sense survives in the modern word canker. From c.1000 in a manuscript called Læce Boc (Leech Book), collected in Oswald Cockayne’s Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England, Vol. II, 1865:

Gemeng wið þam dustum, clæm on ðone cancer.
(Mix with the dust, smear on the cancer.)

And from Wyclif’s 2 Timothy, 1382:

The word of hem crepith as a kankir

The word was being applied specifically to the disease we today call cancer by the beginning of the 17th century. From Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Historie of the World:

Cancer is a swelling or sore comming of melancholy bloud, about which the veins appeare of a blacke or swert colour, spread in manner of a Creifish clees.

The astronomical sense of cancer is from the Latin name for the constellation of the crab. The name was known to the Anglo-Saxons, but only as a Latin name and was not assimilated into English until the Middle English period. It appears in Ælfric’s De Temporibus Anni, written c.993, in a list of the constellations of the Zodiac:

Feorða • Cancer • þæt is Crabba
(Fourth, Cancer, that is the crab.)

The Anglicized name appears c.1391 in Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe:

In this heved of cancer is the grettist declinacioun northward of the sonne...this signe of cancre is clepid the tropik of Somer.
(At this first point (head) of cancer is the greatest declination northward of the sun…this sign of cancer is named the tropic of summer.)

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)  (+ info)

Moderate inhomogeneity of the mammary parenchyma bilaterally?

I got my mammogram yesterday, Can anyone tell me what this means.
" Moderate inhomogeneity of the mammary parenchyma bilaterally " I can't reach my doc to ask him. Any info will be greatly appreciated.

Thank you !

it literally means the appearance of the breast tissues(parenchyma) seen on the xray is not "homogeneous" ie all the same throughout. that is not necessarily a bad thing. just wait and talk to your doctor to be sure if its anything clinically significant.  (+ info)

Mammary arteries provide blood to what parts of the body besides the breasts and heart bypass?

What happens to the body if you have very poor mammary blood circulation? Dryer skin? Smaller breast? Less sweat? Less energy? What

The Internal Thoracic Artery (or, as it used to be known (and surgeons still know it), the Mammary Artery), supplies the breasts, all the intercostal muscles (the muscles used for breathing, between your ribs), both directly, and also through the Musculophrenic Artery lower down. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musculophrenic_artery), in addition, it feeds your abdominal muscles with the Superior Epigastric Artery (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superior_epigastric_artery), through which your pubic area gains its blood.

As an artery, having poor circulation in the ITA would be very serious, as it would starve your intercostal muscles of oxygen, and could potentially mean breathing difficulties.I don't believe you'd sweat less, as if anything your heart would have to work harder to pump blood (the artery itself should push blood along by themselves (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anatomy_artery.png)).
I can't believe it would have any influence on the dryness of the epidermis, which I suspect is controlled more by the content of the blood, rather than the pressure. As to less energy, I suppose so, as without oxygen the cells fed by this artery would be unable to respire aerobically, so your abdomen and chest would have less energy.

However, I wouldn't be surprised if having "poor circulation" in the artery would be damaging to your respiratory system. However, I've never heard of poor circulation in an artery before. Are you sure you don't mean in a vein, for example the Internal Thoracic Vein (aka the Mammary Vein)?

Tom  (+ info)

How are operational definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control?

How are operational definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control
groups, and random assignment used in designing an experiment?

I'm guessing you have an assignment to do? You should be researching these things yourself, but I'll give you a brief overview.
In an experiment, the independent variable is the one you change. For example, if you were measuring the effect of alcohol on student grades, the level of alcohol would be the independent variable.
The dependent variable is the thing you are measuring. From the example above, this would be grades.
We assign participants into groups so that we can prove an effect is occurring. To do this, we compare the results of the control group (which has no experimental manipulation) to the experimental groups (in which the independent variable has been changed).
To make sure that the effect is due to the thing we are manipulating (in my example, alcohol level), and not some other variable we aren't testing (eg. intelligence), we randomly assign participants to groups.  (+ info)

Has anyone had an operation to treat chronic mammary fistula?

Hey, just found out that I've got a chronic mammary fistula which is causing me a lot of pain. A LOT! lol. anyway, my specialist said that I need an operation for it, and that it will be done under general anasthetic, but they wont be able to stitch up the wound afterwards incase infection occurs. I was just wondering if anybody has had this operation before, how long the recovery was, and how painful it was? Any other information would be great too.
Thanks heaps!

Haven't had the surgery, but you will probably have an open wound that you or a home health nurse will change a dressing on 1-2 times per day. I would think that this would last 1-2 weeks depending on how it heals. You will be given pain meds for after the surgery, I'm sure. You should take the meds as often as directed after the surgery & don't let yourself go until the pain is unbearable b/c then it will be harder to control. Get up, move around as soon as allowed, drink plenty of fluids, keep incision clean, etc These will all help the recovery process go smoothly
RN  (+ info)

What is the basis of differing actions of antineoplastic agents on different tissue/neoplasms?

What is the basis for differing tissue- and neoplasm-specificites of antieoplastic chemotherapeutic agents? This doubt arose because considering what the pharmacokinetics of these drugs are it remains to be answered as to why a certain agent would act only in a particular tissue or neoplasm when the mechanisms they employ are so similar, e.g., various alkylating agents in spite having same action act of different tumors with differing degrees of effectiveness. Hope someone answers the question specifically. Useful links to free-text articles would also be highly appreciated. Bye. TC.

If you have thoughts on this subject, you ought to have the initiative to research it yourself.  (+ info)

Anyone been part of a experimental drug study?

I heard on the radio about being in a experimental drug study. Up to $2600 compensation, for 20 day stay in hospital. Has anyone done this or know someone that has? Any tips/warnings/etc would be appreciated.

Not one that was sanctioned by the government!  (+ info)

Has it ever occurred to anyone taking experimental drugs that you may be a human guinea pig?

One must sign full responsibility when agreeing to take an experimental drug, this releases medical staff and pharmaceutical companies of all responsibility should a drug known to cause irreversible muscle damage, kidney, heart & liver failure, or any other problems. For those who have a weak immune system already (from an existing condition), isn’t this a huge risk? If our federal tax money pays for discovery why can’t it also pay for damages caused by the drugs?

My guess is that most people that volunteer to take experimental drugs are so desperate for a cure or relief of an ailment they are suffering that they literally will try ANYTHING. That's the only reason I personally would do it.  (+ info)

Are you aroused by a single mammary or are two necessary?

If I used a word other than mammary I believe I would be reported as lewd, so here.
I know it's a strange question, but it is of scientific mind.
Please don't answer if you are going to argue with the premise.
I suppose whomever thumbed down everyone is now going to provide the right answer? No?

Anyway thanks for answering guys.
lol I just wanted a single word answer. I wanted to test if human sexuality was governed by reducible attributes. This was inconclusive. So... I'm putting it to vote.

To me, sex is in the mind. My mind has associated the normal sexual drive with two boobs because this is how the feminine human body has been naturally built. As is, the normal woman's body is the ideal object of arousing to my mind. However, if the sexual drive is in excess, the mind will succumb to it regardless - some even don't need any mammary to be aroused.

As for me, I have to see/feel them both first, but later in the action, the focus will be on one at a time, or on the two, but not if there's only one; that will look weird to me and may make me loose interest. Natural things are the ideal, but as I said, it depends on how strong the sexual drive is in the first place. I am sure I wouldn't mind one mammary if I haven't been with a woman for a long time, but normally I do not think I will be so eager for an action with such a woman.

On the other hand, if one mammary is casually seen bare, while the other is still hidden, it will be as good to arouse me as seeing them both naked. Simply, because I can imagine the other, or, to be more accurate, I feel confident the other is there  (+ info)

If using the Internal Mammary Artery for bypass operations is best, Why use any of the other options?

I would be very grateful for any information an this.

The Left Internal Mammary Atery (LIMA) is often used to feed the Left Anterior Descending Coronary (LAD), simply because it's right there. It lies below the left breast muscle and is so close and easy to get to that it just cannot be avoided.
The RIMA (right mammary) is used to feed the Right Coronary Artery (RCA), again since it is so close to the area.

These two vessels can only be used for the right and left coronaries. They harvest the leg or sometimes the arms' veins to have options. Since these are arteries, they are susceptible to disease more so than veins.  (+ info)

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