FAQ - Mycoses
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What are the clinical syndromes associated with opportunistic mycoses?


Dear Nick,
Opportunistic mycoses are infections due to fungi with low inherent virulence which means that these pathogens constitute an almost limitless number of fungi. These organisms are common in all environments.
The fungi most frequently isolated from immunocompromised patients are saprophytic (i.e. from the environment) or endogenous (a commensal). The most common species are Candida species, Aspergillus, and zygomycetes.
When a fungus is isolated from an immunocompromised patient, the attending physician has to distinguish between:
Colonization (which is of no major concern)
Transient fungemia (often involving C. albicans)
Systemic infection.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

In immunosuppressed patients, common fungal infections may have an unusual presentation because of:
1. Atypical signs and lesions.
Malassezia furfur usually causes a rather benign and self-limited disease in normal hosts (Tinea versicolor), but in immunocompromised patients may show a rash with disseminated disease and sepsis. This organism requires long-chain fatty acids for growth. Patients receiving parenteral fat emulsions for nutrition become a walking petri plate.
2. Unusual Organ affinity.
Candida may invade liver, heart valves; Oral thrush occurs in people who are relatively immunocompetent while esophageal candidiasis occurs in those patients who are immunologically compromised. Cryptococcus may cause pulmonary and cutaneous infections.
3. Infections with systemic dimorphic fungi occurring outside endemic areas. These factors complicate the diagnosis and management of these diseases.
4. Unusual Histopathology.
Even the inflammatory reaction may be different in biopsy specimens. The normal host reaction to fungal invasion is usually pyogenic or granulomatous. In the immunodeficient host, the reaction is necrotic.



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Describe various risks and modes of infection, and clinical syndromes, associated with opportunistic mycoses.?


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Mycoses...is it also nonopportunistic?


For my pharmacology take home test, one question asks:

"Systemic or deep mycoses can be classified as either opportunistic or nonopportunistic. True or False?"

I know its opportunistic, but is it also nonopportunistic?
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I normally don't answer quiz questions for obvious reasons.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.section.4006  (+ info)

describe the general manifestations of superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, and systemic mycoses.?


include their port of entry and communicability between humans
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here is a link that may help you
http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/open/condition=%22Mycoses%22  (+ info)

Which one of the following is not one of four classes of fungal disease?


A) superficial mycoses
B) systemic mycoses
C) gastrointestinal mycoses
D) dermatomycoses
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C and D are both incorrect. The question is flawed. The 4 types are superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous and systemic. Dermatophytosis is a type of cutaneous fungal infection caused by dermatophytes but other fungi such as yeasts may cause as many as half of all cutaneous fungal infections. Gastrointestinal might be considered a type of systemic fungal infection in some instances.

Dermatophytosis are caused by dermatophytes. These are molds that grow in and on the skin and hair and nails; the keratinized tissues. The term "phytosis" is used instead of mycosis to distinguish them from dermatomycosis. Dermatomycosis are caused by Candida albicans and other fungi and may involve many other tissue types beyond keratinized tissue. Again, neither C or D are among the 4 classic groups because C is just wrong and D is not sufficiently specific. For example, you could have cutaneous (dermatomycosis) lesions that resulted from a very serious systemic fungal infection. If it was treated only with topical antifungals that are typically used for dermatophyte infections, it could be a fatal mistake. In contrast a dermatophytosis are seldom dangerous ... though very unpleasant.  (+ info)

Fungal Infections.?


AIDS patients usually die from bacterial or fungal infections. Why do so many fungal infections appear in these individuals, and why are the mycoses so severe given the fact that fungi, for the most part, are benign residents of the environment. Name two species of fungi that are particularly harsh on the AIDS patient.
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The bacteria and fungi for the most part are already living inside the body of most people. As those with HIV progress to a state of immune dysfuntion, the immune system that was keeping them in check can no longer do so. So people living with AIDS often get bacterial/fungal/parasitic infections.

Coccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis, and chronic vaginal yeast infections in women are some of the more "common" fungal infections in those with HIV.

For the majority of the population, fungi are not a threat because even a basic functioning immune system should be able to keep infection/symptoms away.  (+ info)

Herpes, yeast infection or chemically burned myself?


okay this may sound crazy but i am in sooo much discomfort. about 6 weeks ago i fooled around with this guy who fingered me. he touched himself and then fingered me. when i got home that night, i put rubbing alcohol in an around my vagina. the next two weeks i had the worstdiscomfort....doctor said it was a yeast infection and he prescribed me diflucan for a total of 4 x's and nothing happened. He did a pap smear and it came back abnormal and then performed a colposcopy and said i was fine and not to worry...thinks the abnormal pap was due to yeast infection. I don t understand why diflucan didn t work. Also he did a culture of a water blister (mycoses) and that came back negative for genital herpes. I have also been tested for everything under the sun and everything came back negative. 6 weeks later and i am still in lots of discomfort. My insurance got cancelled and i am waiting for it to be renewed so i can t afford to see the doc right now. I am confused if this could be herpes (prosromal), yeast infection or if i just burned myself. Oh and when i drink unsweetened cranberry juice i am fine...can it help with herpes symptoms?? please someone help me
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Herpes is not usually spread just by fingering, but if they had a cold sore at the time touched it then fingered you immediately after then herpes could possibly be spread that way. If you were using hair removal products down there, then it could have caused some kind of irritation or reaction.
If there was no out break then usually herpes can't be detected through a pap smear, that is usually used to detect genital warts or HPV.
If or when your insurance gets renewed you should go back to the doctor or phone them and tell them that the dillfucan didn't work and ask if they have any other suggestions as to what they think it could be.
Cranberry juice doesn't do much to help with herpes symptoms but it does help UTIs (urinary tract infections). You need antiviral medication (or you could try L-lysine) for herpes since it's a virus.  (+ info)


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