FAQ - Psittacosis
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How contagious is psittacosis from bird to human?


Hi,

My parrot has shockingly, been diagnosed with psittacosis at a routine test!! I wondered if anyone has experienced this could give any advice? I know it can be spread to humans and I'm waiting a few weeks for my blood test. how contagious is it? I am very close to my parrot and kiss his beak, breathe near his feathers and clean his cage so wonder how much chance there is that I am infected?

he is starting injections tomorrow.

Many thanks for anyone that has an experience with this!
----------

From checking online, I see that it is highly contagious to humans. The good part is that it is curable especially when caught early. You will know what it is when you get it, and you will be treated. The biggest problem with psittacosis is trying to diagnose it so if any one else has been exposed to your bird, have them also get a blood test.  (+ info)

What are the definitive criteria for psittacosis diagnostic?


i only got a IgM, borderline 1:32
----------

I am unsure if you want laboratory and radiographic, so hopefully this will help.

Laboratory:
White blood cell counts are normal to mildly decreased.
Liver function tests are usually mildly increased.
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) may be elevated.
Urinalysis may show mild proteinuria with less than 3500 mg per day.
Culturing of C psittaci is possible, but this practice is avoided because it can be hazardous to laboratory personnel.
Test acute-phase serum and convalescent-phase serum 2 weeks after onset to confirm a 4-fold or greater rise in the titer. Complement fixation (CF) is not a specific test and may cross-react with other chlamydial species.
Physicians use microimmunofluorescence (MIF) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies to detect different chlamydia species. PCR may develop into an early and specific detection test.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) are experimental in this setting, but physicians have used them to help diagnose C psittaci infection.
Serologic tests are the mainstays of diagnosis; however, because of the delayed appearance of specific antibodies, these tests are not helpful in emergent clinical management.
Imaging Studies:

Chest radiographic findings are abnormal in up to 90% of cases.
The most common finding is unilateral, lower-lobe dense infiltrate/consolidation. Psittacosis may present in a bilateral, nodular, miliary, or interstitial pattern.
Rarely, patients may develop pleural effusion.
Chest radiograph abnormalities resolve within an average of 6 weeks (range 3-20 wk).

Other Tests:
Few patients have CSF abnormalities.

CDC criteria for C psittaci infection include the following:
Confirmed cases produce a positive culture result for C psittaci from respiratory secretions, a 4-fold increase in antibody titer in 2 serum samples obtained via CF or MIF 2 weeks apart, or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against C psittaci, as detected by MIF to a reciprocal titer of 16.
Possible cases show the presence of antibodies against C psittaci with titers of 1:32 by CF or MIF.

Histologic Findings:
Findings may include tracheobronchitis and interstitial pneumonitis with air space involvement and predominant mononuclear cell infiltration. Findings also may include macrophages containing cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (ie, Levinthal-Coles-Lillie [LCL] bodies), focal necrosis of hepatocytes along with Kupffer cell hyperplasia in the liver, and hepatic noncaseating granulomata.  (+ info)

need to know the causal factor of the psittacosis disease asap?


also does this mainly affect birds and could you tell me a good website having this and any other relevent information quickest right answer I will choose as best
----------

Psittacosis is a rare disease
Bird owners, pet shop employees, persons who work in poultry processing plants, and veterinarians are at increased risk for this infection. Typical birds involved are parrots, parakeets, and budgies although other birds have also caused the disease.lol




http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Causes_Of_Psittacosis/overview/adam20?fdid=Adamv2_000088  (+ info)

My husband has atypical pneumonia ?/ psittacosis. He has been told to stay out of the sun. why.?


Is this because of the pneumonia or is it because of the medication. He is on erythromycin and doxycycline.
----------

Its the medication, not the condition. This is a rare one, I only found 2 in 30 years!

Patients on doxycycline should be advised to avoid excessive sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light while and to discontinue therapy if phototoxicity (e.g., skin eruption etc.) occurs. Sunscreen or sunblock should be considered. Treatment should cease at the first sign of skin erythema.  (+ info)

Is Psittacosis chronic or acute?


In humans, after incubation period of 5-14 days, the symptoms of the disease range from inapparent illness to systemic illness with severe pneumonia. It presents chiefly as an atypical pneumonia. In the first week of psittacosis the symptoms mimic typhoid fever: prostrating high fevers, arthralgias, diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, epistaxis and leukopenia. Rose spots can appear and these are called Horder's spots. Splenomegaly is frequent toward the end of first week. Diagnosis can be suspected in case of respiratory infection associated with splenomegaly and/or epistaxis. Headache can be so severe that suggests meningitis and some nuchal rigidity is not unusual. Towards the end of first week stupor or even coma can result in severe cases.

The second week is more akin of acute bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia with continuous high fevers, cough and dyspnea. X rays show patchy infiltrates or a diffuse whiteout of lung fields. Bloodwork shows leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and moderately elevated liver enzymes. Differential diagnosis must be made with typhus, typhoid and atypical pneumonia by Mycoplasma, Legionella or Q fever. Exposure history is paramount to diagnosis.

Complications in the form of endocarditis, hepatitis, myocarditis, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, and neurologic complications (encephalitis) may occasionally occur. Severe pneumonia requiring intensive-care support may also occur. Fatal cases have been reported (less than 1% of cases).

The infection is treated with antibiotics. Tetracyclines and chloramphenicol are the drugs of choice for treating patients with psittacosis. Most persons respond to oral therapy. For initial treatment of severely ill patients, doxycycline hyclate may be administered intravenously. In past years, tetracycline hydrochloride has been administered to patients intravenously. Remission of symptoms usually is evident within 48-72 hours. However, relapse can occur, and treatment must continue for at least 10-14 days after fever abates. Erythromycin probably is the best alternative agent for persons for whom tetracycline is contraindicated .

So, to answer your question, it's acute and easily curable. God bless!  (+ info)

How Do Doctors Test For and Treat Psittacosis?


At work we have birds infected with psittacosis. I'm feeling quite sick today and work has told me I should see a doctor just in case I have it. I doubt that I have it but the last few days I've had a sore throat and a bad headache. My throat doesn't hurt so much today (just a little) but my headache is worse and I feel a bit nauseous.

How do doctors test for it and how long does it take them to find out if I have it or not? How do they treat it? Thanks.
----------

A simple blood test can tell you if you have it (although not 100% effective) and antibiotics can fix you up. You can read about it here...
http://www.birdsnways.com/articles/psittico.htm  (+ info)

Skin diseases and internal infections: caused by Bacterial, virus, fungi?


10)

Which of the following diseases has a cutaneous form, especially in individuals over 30 years of age?

10)

______
A)

Legionellosis
B)

Coccidioidomycosis
C)

Diphtheria
D)

Scarlet fever
E)

None of the above

11)

Which of the following causes an infection of the respiratory system that is transmitted by the gastrointestinal route?

11)

______
A)

Haemophilus influenzae
B)

Streptococcus pyogenes
C)

Streptococcus pneumoniae
D)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
E)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

12)

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

12)

______
A)

Whooping cough  Bordetella
B)

Q fever  Rickettsia
C)

Epiglottitis  Haemophilus
D)

Psittacosis  Chlamydia
E)

None of the above

13)

Pneumonia can be caused by all of the following except

13)

______
A)

Mycoplasma.
B)

Haemophilus.
C)

Legionella.
D)

Streptococcus.
E)

None of the above.

14)

Which of the following causes opportunistic infections in AIDS patients?

14)

______
A)

Aspergillus
B)

Mucor
C)

Pneumocystis
D)

Rhizopus
E)

All of the above

15)

Which of the following diseases is not correctly matched to its reservoir?

15)

______
A)

Tuberculosis  cattle
B)

Histoplasmosis  soil
C)

Coccidioidomycosis  air
D)

Pneumocystis  humans
E)

Psittacosis  parakeets

16)

Which of the following does not produce an exotoxin?

16)

______
A)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
B)

Corynebacterium diptheriae
C)

Streptococcus pygones
D)

Bordetella pertussis
E)

None of the above

17)

Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by the catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescent stages?

17)

______
A)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae
B)

Bordetella pertussis
C)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
D)

Streptococcus pyogenes
E)

None of the above

18)

Which one of the following is an irregular, gram-positive rod?

18)

______
A)

Streptococcus pyogenes
B)

Corynebacterium diptheriae
C)

Bordetella pertussis
D)

Myobacterium tuberculosis
E)

None of the above

19)

Infection by which of the following results in the formation of Ghon complexes?

19)

______
A)

Bordetella pertussis
B)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
C)

Corynebacterium diptheriae
D)

Streptococcus pyogenes
E)

None of the above

20)

Which one of the following produces the most potent exotoxin?

20)

______
A)

Bordetella pertussis
B)

Streptococcus pyogenes
C)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae
D)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
E)

None of the above

21)

The recurrence of influenza epidemics is due to

21)

______
A)

Antigenic shift.
B)

Lack of naturally acquired active immunity.
C)

Lack of antiviral drugs.
D)

The Guillain-Barré syndrome.
E)

All of the above.

22)

Which of the following is an opportunistic pathogen?

22)

______
A)

Rhinovirus
B)

Pneumocystis
C)

Histoplasma
D)

Mycoplasma
E)

Legionella

23)

Which of the following etiologic agents results in the formation of abscesses?

23)

______
A)

Mycoplasma
B)

Staphylococcus
C)

Streptococcus
D)

Blastomyces
E)

None of the above

24)

Which of the following is most susceptible to destruction by phagocytes?

24)

______
A)

Influenzavirus
B)

Chlamydophila psittaci
C)

Streptococcus pneumoniae
D)

Streptococcus pyogenes
E)

All of the above

25)

A healthy carrier state exists for

25)

______
A)

Haemophilus influenzae.
B)

Streptococcus pneumoniae.
C)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
D)

Beta-hemolytic streptococci.
E)

All of the above.

26)

Infection by which of the following is often confused with viral pneumonia?

26)

______
A)

Streptococcus
B)

Blastomyces
C)

Coccidioides
D)

Mycoplasma
E)

None of the above

27)

Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by a red rash?

27)

______
A)

Coccidioides
B)

Streptococcus
C)

Blastomyces
D)

Mycoplasma
E)

None of the above

28)

Inhalation of arthroconidia is responsible for infection by which of the following organisms?

28)

______
A)

Blastomyces
B)

Coccidioides
C)

Streptococcus
D)

Mycoplasma
E)

None of the above

29)

Which of the following pairs is mismatche
----------

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MICROBES: Virus, bacteria, fungi, diseases AND INFECTIONS?


10)

Which of the following diseases has a cutaneous form, especially in individuals over 30 years of age?

10)

______
A)

Legionellosis
B)

Coccidioidomycosis
C)

Diphtheria
D)

Scarlet fever
E)

None of the above

11)

Which of the following causes an infection of the respiratory system that is transmitted by the gastrointestinal route?

11)

______
A)

Haemophilus influenzae
B)

Streptococcus pyogenes
C)

Streptococcus pneumoniae
D)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
E)

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

12)

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

12)

______
A)

Whooping cough  Bordetella
B)

Q fever  Rickettsia
C)

Epiglottitis  Haemophilus
D)

Psittacosis  Chlamydia
E)

None of the above

13)

Pneumonia can be caused by all of the following except

13)

______
A)

Mycoplasma.
B)

Haemophilus.
C)

Legionella.
D)

Streptococcus.
E)

None of the above.

14)

Which of the following causes opportunistic infections in AIDS patients?

14)

______
A)

Aspergillus
B)

Mucor
C)

Pneumocystis
D)

Rhizopus
E)

All of the above

15)

Which of the following diseases is not correctly matched to its reservoir?

15)

______
A)

Tuberculosis  cattle
B)

Histoplasmosis  soil
C)

Coccidioidomycosis  air
D)

Pneumocystis  humans
E)

Psittacosis  parakeets

16)

Which of the following does not produce an exotoxin?

16)

______
A)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
B)

Corynebacterium diptheriae
C)

Streptococcus pygones
D)

Bordetella pertussis
E)

None of the above

17)

Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by the catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescent stages?

17)

______
A)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae
B)

Bordetella pertussis
C)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
D)

Streptococcus pyogenes
E)

None of the above

18)

Which one of the following is an irregular, gram-positive rod?

18)

______
A)

Streptococcus pyogenes
B)

Corynebacterium diptheriae
C)

Bordetella pertussis
D)

Myobacterium tuberculosis
E)

None of the above

19)

Infection by which of the following results in the formation of Ghon complexes?

19)

______
A)

Bordetella pertussis
B)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
C)

Corynebacterium diptheriae
D)

Streptococcus pyogenes
E)

None of the above

20)

Which one of the following produces the most potent exotoxin?

20)

______
A)

Bordetella pertussis
B)

Streptococcus pyogenes
C)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae
D)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
E)

None of the above

21)

The recurrence of influenza epidemics is due to

21)

______
A)

Antigenic shift.
B)

Lack of naturally acquired active immunity.
C)

Lack of antiviral drugs.
D)

The Guillain-Barré syndrome.
E)

All of the above.

22)

Which of the following is an opportunistic pathogen?

22)

______
A)

Rhinovirus
B)

Pneumocystis
C)

Histoplasma
D)

Mycoplasma
E)

Legionella

23)

Which of the following etiologic agents results in the formation of abscesses?

23)

______
A)

Mycoplasma
B)

Staphylococcus
C)

Streptococcus
D)

Blastomyces
E)

None of the above

24)

Which of the following is most susceptible to destruction by phagocytes?

24)

______
A)

Influenzavirus
B)

Chlamydophila psittaci
C)

Streptococcus pneumoniae
D)

Streptococcus pyogenes
E)

All of the above

25)

A healthy carrier state exists for

25)

______
A)

Haemophilus influenzae.
B)

Streptococcus pneumoniae.
C)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
D)

Beta-hemolytic streptococci.
E)

All of the above.

26)

Infection by which of the following is often confused with viral pneumonia?

26)

______
A)

Streptococcus
B)

Blastomyces
C)

Coccidioides
D)

Mycoplasma
E)

None of the above

27)

Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by a red rash?

27)

______
A)

Coccidioides
B)

Streptococcus
C)

Blastomyces
D)

Mycoplasma
E)

None of the above

28)

Inhalation of arthroconidia is responsible for infection by which of the following organisms?

28)

______
A)

Blastomyces
B)

Coccidioides
C)

Streptococcus
D)

Mycoplasma
E)

None of the above

29)

Which of the following pairs is mismatche
----------

I waded laboriously down that widely spaced list.
Now you wade through these...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cutaneous_conditions  (+ info)

Facts about the following diseases!!?


1. Anthrax
2. Smallpox
3. Plague
4. Ebola
5. Marburg
6. Botulism
7. Tularemia
8. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
9. Psittacosis
10. Melioidosis
11. Typhus fever
12. Nipah virus
13. Hantavirus
14. Argentinian hemorrhagic fever
15. Chikungunya fever
16. Coccidiodomycosis
17. Dengue fever
18. Dysentery
19. Eastern equine encephalitis
20. Ebola hemorrhagic fever
21. Glanders
22. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
23. Japanese Encephalitis
24. Lassa fever
25. Melioidosis
26. Monkeypox
27. Omsk hemorrhagic fever
28. Scrub typhus
29. Spring-summer encephalitis
30. Trench fever
31. Yellow fever
----------

That is a very long list! It would be probably easier to read if you visit the sites with the relevant information yourself.

Here are some helpful sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com
http://www.wikipedia.com
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/dc-ma/index-eng.php
http://dir.yahoo.com/Health/diseases_and_conditions/
http://www.health.state.ny.us/diseases/  (+ info)

CANCER! WHATS THE CAUSE?


I KNOW THIS IS AN OUT THERE QUESTION, BUT I MUST ASK!

COULD PIGEON DROPPINGS IF INHALED OVER THE YEARS CAUSE CANCER

" HODGKINS LYMPHOMA" IS WHAT MY SON HAS! AND FOR 10 YEARS WE LIVED IN AN APARTMENT WHERE THERE WAS DROPPINGS AND LANDLORD NEVER CLEAN IT UP, THE BEDROOM MY SON WAS IN HAPPEN TO BE CLOSE TO WHERE THE BACK PORCH WAS WHERE THE PIGEON DROPPING WAS!

NOW I AM AWARE OF
Histoplasmosis, Cryptococcosis,Psittacosis, DO TO PIGEON DROPPINGS.................

HELP .......................
----------

  (+ info)

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