FAQ - Retinal Diseases
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Can we implant bionic sub-retinal photoreceptors very close to damaged retinal cells from trauma or diabetic r?


Can we implant bionic sub-retinal photoreceptors very close to damaged retinal cells from trauma or diabetic retinopathy to boost their function?
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Still in the planning/experimental stages, apparently:
http://www.retina-implant.de/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinal_implant
http://news.cnet.com/2100-11390_3-6057581.html  (+ info)

What is the process of laser photocoagulaton that a opthamologist does for retinal tears?


I went to my optamologist to checkup on floaters in my field of vision. He found that I have a retinal tear in my left eye. He told me that he would need to see me on Friday to seal the tear with a laser. I've never had any surgery like this done. Has anyone gone through this? What is the process like and what does it entail? How do you keep your eyes open and without blinking? Is there any pain experienced?
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Laser photocoagulation is done for bleeding. If the tear includes a little hemorrage, that's possible. Usually they will perform a barrier laser or something like that. These are both similar, so I'll tell you what will happen...
First you'll get some eye drops, numbing and possibly an antibiotic (doubtful). Then, depending on the type of laser and size of tear, you may need a shot to numb the eye. This sounds terrible, but it's not that bad. The doctor will insert the needle through your lower lid and get the medicine behind the eye, this is know as a retrobulbar block. This also keeps the eye from moving. Then he will place a large contact lens on the eye to focus the laser beam, you will not feel this. The laser will be performed (if you've had the shot you will feel nothing, if just the drops you may have dull pain) and he will give you post-operative instrucitons. Sometimes you have to position yourself a certain way to keep the retina attached. If the tear was too severe they can also do a pneumatic retinopexy which is where they inject a gas into the eye to create a bubble and when the bubble touches the retina it moves the fluid out from behind the tear where it is not supposed to be. That's not as bad as it sounds either.

You'll be fine, just breathe!  (+ info)

How serious is retinal degeneration problem?


I am 37 yrs old. I have been using glasses for the past 25 years. I have -6 in left eye and -4 in right eye for the past 20 years.. I had retina check up all these days. Suddenly this time my doctor said my power has increased and I have retinal degeneration and I have to be on observation. What care I need to take? Can any one suggest me how to reduce retinal degeneration? How serious is this problem?
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Keep an eye on it. No pun intended. Have your sugar checked by your regular doctor, could lead to diabetic retinopathy, and sometime this retinal degeneration. leads to a detached retina. I would say your doctor is on top of this and I would follow his advice. He and your regular doctor can keep this under control.
Beautiful answer by Nitu Ram D!!  (+ info)

What happens if you find out your going through retinal detachment?


How will they tell you?
What kind of tests do they take and how?
How long does it take for it to detach?
Does seeing floaters and specs of light ABSOLUTLY meen retinal detachment? If not what else could it meen/be?
Could an 11 year old female get a retinal detachment?
other info is welcomed
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A retinal detachment is usually due to a head injury like a car crash, or a football or boxing injury. The symptom is partial or total loss of vision in that eye. An eye specialist can see the problem inside your eye with a special scope. It can be re-attached with laser surgery, but it can become detached again. Floaters and specks of light are not from retinal detachment, but are common in growing teens. But if it's worrying you, see your family doc.  (+ info)

I am VERY myopic and have already had 2 retinal tears. How often should I see my eye doctor?


The retinal tears were minor, but they were treated with laser nonetheless.

Last time (the follow-up appointment), my eye doc told me I am undergoing a "posterior vitreous detachment," and during that process these two tiny tears developed. My retinas are okay now, but how often should I go see my eye doc now?

I am severely myopic at -10 and -12. I wear rigid contact lenses.

Thanks!
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You should see your eye doctor as often as he or she said to :P
Your ophthalmologist (the one who did the lasering) will tell you when (or if) they want to see you back. Often, after correcting the immediate problem, they will refer you back to your original optometrist for routine followup and monitoring. Of course, they will see you again if another tear or other problem occurs.
Barring that, typically people with this sort of retinal problem are seen every year for a dilated exam. If you're at higher risk for some reason (for example, if there was a suspicious area of retina the last time) you might return in six months or sooner. But the routine tends to be yearly.  (+ info)

I have a history of Retinal detachment and I am short sighted. Could I still get laser eye treatment?


My family has a history of Retinal detachment and I have had it checked and I will in the future have the same outcome. I will have to have laser in the future to stop it happening, so I won't have to have the surgery. But I also have short sightedness. Do you think I could still meet the criteria to have the laser corrective surgery for short sightedness?
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I think you need to be examined by an Ophthalmologist, but likely you'd be a good candidate for your Near-sightedness. Remember, laser vision correction isnt designed to give you perfect vision, but greatly improved would minimize the true visual invalid you currently are! :))  (+ info)

After treatment of retinal detachment, what are the key supplements for eye health?


This is after the eye surgeons have done all they could to help my retinal detachment. I'm just wondering if there are certain vitamins, minerals, or omega acids that I should take in order to help my situation, possibly help my situation and improve my vision.
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For general eye health you can probably take a good multivitamin that provides what you may need, but Bausch & Lomb and other companies have put together capsules that support eye health also.

Omega 3, Lutein, Vitamin A, Beta Carotene, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin B2, Zinc, Copper & Bilberry Extract.
Check with your Doctor to make sure it's safe to take any vitamins along with other medications you may be taking.

Best of Luck with your surgery.  (+ info)

How do I ensure I do not get Retinal Detachment?


I am at high risk for retinal detachment because I am very near sighted. I have a -12.50 in each eye., and onnly 21. There is a tiny hole in my retina right now. While I don't box or anything like that, I was wondering if I could still ride roller coasters, and do normal things like jog and such.
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You cannot prevent most cases of retinal detachment.

Some eye injuries can damage the retina and cause detachment. You can reduce your risk of these types of injuries if you:

Wear safety glasses when you use a hammer or saw, work with power tools or yard tools such as weed eaters and lawn mowers, or do any activity that might result in small objects flying into your eye.
Wear special sports glasses or goggles during boxing, racquetball, soccer, squash, and other sports in which you might receive a blow to the eye.
Use appropriate safety measures when you use fireworks or firearms.
Diabetes puts you at greater risk for developing diabetic retinopathy, an eye disease that can lead to tractional retinal detachment. If you have diabetes, you can help control and prevent eye problems by having regular eye exams and by keeping your blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible.

Treating a retinal tear can often prevent retinal detachment, but not all tears need treatment. The decision to treat a tear depends on whether the tear is likely to progress to a detachment. For more information,
you should always consult your eye doctor because they know your specific eye condition and can better give you a responsible assessment.  (+ info)

What diseases would have the symptom of coughing up blood or blood in the phlegm?


This is not a symptom of my own so please don't tell me to go to the doctor, it is for a piece of work I have to do for College.

If you could tell me the name of a disease/ diseases that cause this, preferably not consumption or TB, a little about it and other symptoms it would be a massive help!
If you could also include treatment options and how serious a disease it is that would also be fantastic!



Hope you can help! Thanks!
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First: spitting up blood is clinically known as: HEMOPTYSIS (bloody sputum, spit)
Yes, pneumonia is the most likely, but......
The following is from my medical e-book (I'm a nursing student)

"Blood in the sputum (hemoptysis) is most often seen in clients with chronic bronchitis or lung cancer. Clients with tuberculosis, pulmonary infarction, bronchial adenoma, or lung abscess may have grossly bloody sputum."
Also the end stage of cycstic fibrosis will present with hemoptysis.

a biggie in the hospital is:
PULMONARY EMBOLISM
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a collection of particulate matter (solids, liquids, or gaseous substances) that enters venous circulation and lodges in the pulmonary vessels. Large emboli obstruct pulmonary blood flow, leading to decreased systemic oxygenation, pulmonary tissue hypoxia, and potential death. Any substance can cause an embolism, but a blood clot is the most common.

Pulmonary embolism is the most common acute pulmonary disease (90%) among hospitalized clients. In most people with PE, a blood clot from a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) breaks loose from one of the veins in the legs or the pelvis. The thrombus breaks off, travels through the vena cava and right side of the heart, and then lodges in a smaller blood vessel in the lung. Platelets collect with the embolus, triggering the release of substances that cause blood vessel constriction. Widespread pulmonary vessel constriction and pulmonary hypertension impair gas exchange. Deoxygenated blood shunts into the arterial circulation, causing hypoxemia. About 12% of clients with PE do not have hypoxemia.

Pulmonary embolism affects at least 500,000 people a year in the United States, about 10% of whom die. Many die within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms or before the diagnosis has even been suspected.

For clients with a known risk for PE, small doses of prophylactic subcutaneous heparin may be prescribed every 8 to 12 hours. Heparin prevents excessive coagulation in clients immobilized for a prolonged period, after trauma or surgery, or when restricted to bedrest. Occasionally, a drug to reduce platelet aggregation, such as clopidogrel (Plavix), is used in place of heparin.



A smaller one that popped up in the book:
GOODPASTURE'S SYNDROME
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Goodpasture's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which autoantibodies are made against the glomerular basement membrane and neutrophils. The two organs with the most damage are the lungs and the kidney. Lung damage is manifested as pulmonary hemorrhage. Kidney damage manifests as glomerulonephritis that may rapidly progress to complete renal failure (see Chapters 74 and 75). Unlike other autoimmune disorders, Goodpasture's syndrome occurs most often in adolescent or young adult men. The exact cause or triggering agent is unknown.

COLLABORATIVE MANAGEMENT
Goodpasture's syndrome usually is not diagnosed until serious lung and/or kidney problems are present. Manifestations include shortness of breath, hemoptysis (bloody sputum), decreased urine output, weight gain, generalized nondependent edema, hypertension, and tachycardia. Chest x-rays show areas of consolidation. The most common cause of death is uremia as a result of renal failure.

Spontaneous resolution of Goodpasture's syndrome has occurred but is rare. Interventions focus on reducing the immune-mediated damage and performing some type of renal supportive therapy.

  (+ info)

What diseases can you get from cutting yourself with a rusty knife?


This is a question from a growing nurse. I've always wondered if you really can get a disease from a rusty knife or any rust and what kind of diseases you can get.
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staph aureus and staph epidermidis are commonly found on the skin and are responsible for
most infected wounds. methicillin resistant staph aureus (MRSA) is becoming a serious
problem. tetanus (clostridium tetani) is also a possibility but is usually not a problem with superficial
cuts that bleed a lot. infected wounds not treated properly can become gangrenous (clostridium
perfringens). clostridium bacteria are anaerobic which means that require a lack of oxygen to
grow. poor circulation or elevating an infected foot may lead to gangrene due to the lack of oxygen
in the infected area. if a person touches the cut with unclean hands, e. coli could infect the wound.  (+ info)

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