FAQ - Retinal Neoplasms
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What is the connection between malignant neoplasms and crabs?

The more common term for malignant neoplasms, cancer, is Latin for crab, and the word "carcinogen," meaning a cancer-causing agent, comes from the Greek word for crab, "karkinos." What is the connection between these two seemingly unrelated things?

Cancer, both the disease and the astronomical constellation, derive from the Latin cancer or cancrum, meaning crab. The astrological sign, of course, is said to resemble a crab and the disease was so named by the ancient Greek physician Galen (129-200 A.D.) who noted the similarity between a certain type of tumor with a crab as well—the swollen veins around the tumor resembling the legs of a crab.

Old English adopted cancer directly from Latin and used it for a variety of spreading sores and ulcers. This early sense survives in the modern word canker. From c.1000 in a manuscript called Læce Boc (Leech Book), collected in Oswald Cockayne’s Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England, Vol. II, 1865:

Gemeng wið þam dustum, clæm on ðone cancer.
(Mix with the dust, smear on the cancer.)

And from Wyclif’s 2 Timothy, 1382:

The word of hem crepith as a kankir

The word was being applied specifically to the disease we today call cancer by the beginning of the 17th century. From Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Historie of the World:

Cancer is a swelling or sore comming of melancholy bloud, about which the veins appeare of a blacke or swert colour, spread in manner of a Creifish clees.

The astronomical sense of cancer is from the Latin name for the constellation of the crab. The name was known to the Anglo-Saxons, but only as a Latin name and was not assimilated into English until the Middle English period. It appears in Ælfric’s De Temporibus Anni, written c.993, in a list of the constellations of the Zodiac:

Feorða • Cancer • þæt is Crabba
(Fourth, Cancer, that is the crab.)

The Anglicized name appears c.1391 in Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe:

In this heved of cancer is the grettist declinacioun northward of the sonne...this signe of cancre is clepid the tropik of Somer.
(At this first point (head) of cancer is the greatest declination northward of the sun…this sign of cancer is named the tropic of summer.)

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)  (+ info)

What type of accidents can cause retinal detachment in both eyes?

I am writing a story, and I would like to know what accidents (preferably sporting injuries) can lead to sudden permanent blindness in both eyes. The character it happens to, if it makes a difference, is a teenage girl. I have looked into retinal detachment, but that seems to occur over time. This is my first question, so I don't know how this works, but I would love a good answer.

I've had my retina partially detacked and had lazer surgery to correct it. I use to play baseball and softball. Getting hit in the head with balls, bats, all sorts of stuff can cause it. Just really getting hit in the head really hard. It doesn't all tear at once. It takes a long time. I guess unless you get hit like super hard. Several of the times with the batting cage accidents were right on the side of my head and knocked me out cold.  (+ info)

What are the possible causes of retinal cysts?

Or, is there anyone with personal experience of retinal cysts? Friend of mine has retinal cysts, many in the left eye, 1 or 2 in the right eye. Yes, he's lived in various countries in Africa so parasites are potentially to blame. But, if so, which ones? Is there anything other than parasites that it could be? Cited articles preferred – thanks.

Most retinal cysts are caused by heredity. I really don't know of any other causes. This disorder is called retinoschisis and is predominately found in males.

There is oodles of information of this on the web, some links are:

Some pages cover more than this eye specific disorder so you need to page down to the part labelled retinoschisis.  (+ info)

What are the treatment for low eyes pressure after retinal detachment surgery?

My friend's dad had surgery for retinal detachment, then he had some complications. Now his pressure in the eyes are really low, he has to keep taking hormone to keep his eyes pressure. Are there any other treatments for his low eyes pressure? Thanks!
My friend's dad had surgery for retinal detachment, then he had some complications. Now his pressure in the eyes are really low, he has to keep taking hormone or steroids to keep his eyes pressure up. Are there any other treatments for his low eyes pressure comparing to taking steroids? Thanks!

Sometimes surgery is necessary, but usually they put people on Pred Forte, which is an ophthalmic steroid. Sometimes, people's eye pressure goes up when they are on steroids, either systemic or ophthalmic, so they put them on this in hopes that the pressure will go up.  (+ info)

Will a cats pupils react to light if they have retinal degeneration?

My cat was recently diagnosed with retinal degeneration. It was brought on by an excessive dosage of Baytril. (prescribed by an ER vet) He seems to have some vision left. He almost seems to have tunnel vision or to be far sighted. His pupils are very large at night and will stay that way, but when he is in natural light they retract back down to normal. Is this a sign that he does still have some vision?

My cat had detached retina and was blind for a few days. During that time his pupils stayed the same size. The Vet was able to prescribe something that restored his sight. We must give it to him every day but we don't mind. You might ask your Vet about that.  (+ info)

How does it feel when you have surgery with a retinal detachment?

I am 15 years old and I am scared. I got this retinal detachment, the doc. says, by a trama accident when I got hit in the eye 3 months ago. He says he has to cut also the membranes or something like that that is pulling the retina.

you don't feel a thing, they either give you a general anesthesia, so you sleep thru it, or they use numbing agents and again, you can't feel anything.  (+ info)

Can we implant bionic sub-retinal photoreceptors very close to damaged retinal cells from trauma or diabetic r?

Can we implant bionic sub-retinal photoreceptors very close to damaged retinal cells from trauma or diabetic retinopathy to boost their function?

Still in the planning/experimental stages, apparently:
http://news.cnet.com/2100-11390_3-6057581.html  (+ info)

What is the process of laser photocoagulaton that a opthamologist does for retinal tears?

I went to my optamologist to checkup on floaters in my field of vision. He found that I have a retinal tear in my left eye. He told me that he would need to see me on Friday to seal the tear with a laser. I've never had any surgery like this done. Has anyone gone through this? What is the process like and what does it entail? How do you keep your eyes open and without blinking? Is there any pain experienced?

Laser photocoagulation is done for bleeding. If the tear includes a little hemorrage, that's possible. Usually they will perform a barrier laser or something like that. These are both similar, so I'll tell you what will happen...
First you'll get some eye drops, numbing and possibly an antibiotic (doubtful). Then, depending on the type of laser and size of tear, you may need a shot to numb the eye. This sounds terrible, but it's not that bad. The doctor will insert the needle through your lower lid and get the medicine behind the eye, this is know as a retrobulbar block. This also keeps the eye from moving. Then he will place a large contact lens on the eye to focus the laser beam, you will not feel this. The laser will be performed (if you've had the shot you will feel nothing, if just the drops you may have dull pain) and he will give you post-operative instrucitons. Sometimes you have to position yourself a certain way to keep the retina attached. If the tear was too severe they can also do a pneumatic retinopexy which is where they inject a gas into the eye to create a bubble and when the bubble touches the retina it moves the fluid out from behind the tear where it is not supposed to be. That's not as bad as it sounds either.

You'll be fine, just breathe!  (+ info)

How serious is retinal degeneration problem?

I am 37 yrs old. I have been using glasses for the past 25 years. I have -6 in left eye and -4 in right eye for the past 20 years.. I had retina check up all these days. Suddenly this time my doctor said my power has increased and I have retinal degeneration and I have to be on observation. What care I need to take? Can any one suggest me how to reduce retinal degeneration? How serious is this problem?

Keep an eye on it. No pun intended. Have your sugar checked by your regular doctor, could lead to diabetic retinopathy, and sometime this retinal degeneration. leads to a detached retina. I would say your doctor is on top of this and I would follow his advice. He and your regular doctor can keep this under control.
Beautiful answer by Nitu Ram D!!  (+ info)

What happens if you find out your going through retinal detachment?

How will they tell you?
What kind of tests do they take and how?
How long does it take for it to detach?
Does seeing floaters and specs of light ABSOLUTLY meen retinal detachment? If not what else could it meen/be?
Could an 11 year old female get a retinal detachment?
other info is welcomed

A retinal detachment is usually due to a head injury like a car crash, or a football or boxing injury. The symptom is partial or total loss of vision in that eye. An eye specialist can see the problem inside your eye with a special scope. It can be re-attached with laser surgery, but it can become detached again. Floaters and specks of light are not from retinal detachment, but are common in growing teens. But if it's worrying you, see your family doc.  (+ info)

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