FAQ - Sigmoid Neoplasms
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When can a tumor be non-cellular or non-neoplastic? And how can some neoplasms be cell free?


So basically, I've got a bio midterm tomorrow, and so in the process of studying, I realized I completely don't get that! Even my bio friends are like, what....? So if ANYONE can help us out here, that would be fantastic! Thanks!
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The word tumor is defined (in Answers.com) as "An abnormal growth of tissue resulting from uncontrolled, progressive multiplication of cells and serving no physiological function; a neoplasm." So your teacher is playing with semantics here.

The only way a "mass" could be non-cellular would be if it were cystic - - a contained area of fluid. We see this with some ovarian tumors which may be benign or malignant. The benign ones are ovarian serous cystadenomas or mucinous cystadenomas which can be quite large tumor masses. These do contain cells however in the membranous sacs surrounding the fluid
http://www.mypacs.net/cases/MUCINOUS-CYSTADENOMA-OVARY-857115.html  (+ info)

Sitz Marker test with rings left in the sigmoid colon? What would be the procedure?


I have had so mnay GI tests it's crazy. The drs. say I have a hiatal hernia, and IBS. I know IBS is a catch all diagnosis. My latest test was a sitz marker. The founs rings left in the sigmoid colon. Any ideas? I can't see the surgeon till 2/10.
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This isn’t a cancer test so I don’t really know the answer. This test is usually done on people with chronic constipation and if rings were left you obviously have slow moving bowels. All I can tell you is surgeons look at things from a surgical point of view. I would try every less invasive way of treating this before I would consent to surgery. Whatever you chose to do I hope you find relief soon. Best wishes.  (+ info)

what does mural thickening in the sigmoid region mean?


i have had extensive tests for pain in my left iliac fossa area ( pain in the lower left side) i had a ct and it shows mural thickening through the sigmoid region in keeping with early diverticular change. what on earth is that supposed to mean? i don't go back to see my surgeon til he god knows when and i was hoping someone might have an idea what it means basically
thanks in advance x
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The sigmoid colon is the s-shaped part of the large intestine, which is situated in the lower, left abdomen just before the rectum. Mural thickening just means the wall of the colon is thickened, usually due to inflammation. In diverticular change small pockets develop in the intestinal wall (diverticulosis), in which faeces can become trapped, causing inflammation or infection, giving you the left iliac fossa pain you describe (diverticulitis). It is thought to be caused by lack of fibre in the diet and/or chronic constipation and is fairly common. Usually treatment is to increase dietary fibre and increase fluid intake, with antibiotics being used if there are signs of infection. I hope that is of some help.  (+ info)

What is the cost of Sigmoid Colon Cut Vaginoplasty Surgery ?


Many patients travel from United States of America and UK to get low cost of Sigmoid Colon Cut Vaginoplasty surgery in India. One of the most frequently asked questions when considering Sigmoid Colon Cut Vaginoplasty surgery is "how much?" and “what is the price of surgery in India?”

Oftentimes, patients choose their surgeon on the basis of price.
The cost of Sigmoid Colon Cut Vaginoplasty surgery is very affordable in India and costs are much lower when compared to the United States, UK and other countries. However, since the success of your surgery is largely dependent on your choice of surgeon, cost should not be your main consideration for your decision to undergo Sigmoid Colon Cut Vaginoplasty surgery in India.
I checked out the website of Forerunners Healthcare –which is the premier most medical tourism company in India offering low cost surgery in India to International Patients. They have served more than 400 International patients from across the globe (specially US and UK) to get low cost affordable surgery in India at the best Hospitals and Medical Institutions. And the general price of the Sigmoid Colon Cut Vaginoplasty surgery is as follows-

The Cost of Sigmoid Colon Cut Vaginoplasty surgery in India is $ 6,000.

http://www.forerunnershealthcare.com
In India, any licensed medical doctor can perform Sigmoid Colon Cut Vaginoplasty surgery. To avoid unsatisfactory results, it is best to choose a surgeon who has completed an accredited residency-training program in Sigmoid Colon Cut Vaginoplasty surgery. He should have extensive experience in the procedure you will undergo. That’s when Forerunners Healthcare come into picture-helping you get the best surgeon for your surgery at the most affordable prices in the best Hospitals of India.

Your surgeon's skill can make all the difference between a good and an average result. Thus, although it is understandable that price is one of the considerations in your choice of surgeon, it is important to remember that the main consideration should be your surgeon's professional qualifications and experience.

Besides that you should look into other issues related to traveling abroad, which is your visa, passport, climate, cultural issues and language barrier. Although language is not a problem in India –as most of the people are well verse in English. But you should make sure that you have a reliable hand holding person to guide you through the various steps of getting medical treatment and surgery in India.


Hope this helps.  (+ info)

Has anybody had the surgical procedure called, sigmoid colon resection. Not laproscopic either.?


If You have. How was the outcome. How was the procedure. Is there anything you could share with me to help me decide or not decide to go through with this procedure?
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I have never had the procedure myself, but I can tell you I rarely see any complications from the surgery and most patients go home in 4-5 days.

I’m not sure why you would consider not having the surgery. I am sure your doctors are recommending it as your cancer could not be completely removed on colonoscopy. If this is the case there is no other possibility of curing you. The tumor will get bigger and you will most likely have to have the surgery eventually just to be able to empty your bowls, but by that time it will be too late to save your life.  (+ info)

How deep is the anal cavity?Until the sigmoid colon? typically?


How deep can you go in the anus before entering the 2nd spincter(Sigmoid colon)???

I believe around 7-8 inches for regular height people?
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You mean the rectum, since you are so interested. The anal canal is 2.5 - 4 centimeters long, depending on the person. "The anal canal is the last stop for poop before it sees the light of day. It's situated between the rectum and anus."

"The rectum is about eight inches long and serves, basically, as a warehouse for poop. It hooks up with the sigmoid colon to the north and with the anal canal to the south."  (+ info)

I had a ct scan and it showed a rounded low density structure in proximal sigmoid colon what is this?


did you do the ct scan yourself at home,
or did you have medical professionals do it and not bother to ask them the question because you thought they would have no idea and you rushed home to ask yahoo answers?  (+ info)

how bad is a e-coli infection after sigmoid colon removal surgery ?


my husband went in for sigmoid removal do to diverticulise, and has been in the hospital for seven days now and now has an e-coli infection in the wound....i am just wondering if this okay or should i be really worried??
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This may be more then you want to know!!


Escherichia coli O157:H7

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illness. Based on a 1999 estimate, 73,000 cases of infection and 61 deaths occur in the United States each year. In the ten CDC Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites (which represent 15% of the US population), there was a 29% decline in E. coli O157:H7 infection since 1996-98 (see FoodNet Reports).

Infection with E. coli often leads to bloody diarrhea, and occasionally to kidney failure. People can become infected with E.coli O157:H7 in a variety of ways. Though most illness has been associated with eating undercooked, contaminated ground beef, people have also become ill from eating contaminated bean sprouts or fresh leafy vegetables such as lettuce and spinach. Person-to-person contact in families and child care centers is also a known mode of transmission. In addition, infection can occur after drinking raw milk and after swimming in or drinking sewage-contaminated water.

Consumers can prevent E. coli O157:H7 infection by thoroughly cooking ground beef, avoiding unpasteurized milk, and by washing hands carefully before preparing or eating food. Fruits and vegetables should be washed well, but washing may not remove all contamination. Public service announcements on television, radio, or in the newspapers will advise you which foods to avoid in the event of an outbreak.

Because the organism lives in the intestines of healthy cattle, preventive measures on cattle farms, during meat processing, and during the growth, harvest and processing of produce are being investigated.


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What is Escherichia coli O157:H7?

E. coli O157:H7 is one of hundreds of strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Although most strains are harmless, this strain produces a powerful toxin that can cause severe illness. E. coli O157:H7 has been found in the intestines of healthy cattle, deer, goats, and sheep.

E. coli O157:H7 was first recognized as a cause of illness in 1982 during an outbreak of severe bloody diarrhea; the outbreak was traced to contaminated hamburgers. Since then, more infections in the United States have been caused by eating undercooked ground beef than by any other food.

The combination of letters and numbers in the name of the bacterium refers to the specific markers found on its surface and distinguishes it from other types of E. coli.

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How is E. coli O157:H7 spread?

The organism can be found on most cattle farms, and it is commonly found in petting zoos and can live in the intestines of healthy cattle, deer, goats, and sheep. Meat can become contaminated during slaughter, and organisms can be accidentally mixed into meat when it is ground. Bacteria present on the cow's udders or on equipment may get into raw milk. In a petting zoo, E.coli O157:H7 can contaminate the ground, railings, feed bins, and fur of the animals.

Eating meat, especially ground beef, that has not been cooked sufficiently to kill E. coli O157:H7 can cause infection. Contaminated meat looks and smells normal. The number of organisms required to cause disease is very small.

Among other known sources of infection are consumption of sprouts, lettuce, spinach, salami, unpasteurized milk and juice, and by swimming in or drinking sewage-contaminated water.

Bacteria in loose stool of infected persons can be passed from one person to another if hygiene or hand washing habits are inadequate. This is particularly likely among toddlers who are not toilet trained. Family members and playmates of these children are at high risk of becoming infected.

Young children typically shed the organism in their feces for a week or two after their illness resolves. Older children and adults rarely carry the organism without symptoms.

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What illness does E. coli O157:H7 cause?

People generally become ill from E. coli O157:H7 two to eight days (average of 3-4) after being exposed to the bacteria. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection often causes severe bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Sometimes the infection causes non-bloody diarrhea or no symptoms. Usually little or no fever is present, and the illness resolves in 5 to 10 days.

In some persons, particularly children under 5 years of age and the elderly, the infection can also cause a complication called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), in which the red blood cells are destroyed and the kidneys fail. About 8% of persons whose diarrheal illness is severe enough that they seek medical care develop this complication. In the United States, HUS is the principal cause of acute kidney failure in children, and most cases of HUS are caused by E. coli O157:H7.

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How is E. coli O157:H7 infection diagnosed?

Infection with E. coli O157:H7 is diagnosed by detecting the bacterium in the stool. About one-third of laboratories that culture stool still do not test for E. coli O157:H7, so it is important to request that the stool specimen be tested on sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar for this organism. All persons who suddenly have diarrhea with blood should get their stool tested for E. coli O157:H7.

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How is the illness treated?

Most people recover without antibiotics or other specific treatment within 5 to 10 days. Antibiotics should not be used to treat this infection. There is no evidence that antibiotics improve the course of disease, and it is thought that treatment with some antibiotics could lead to kidney complications. Antidiarrheal agents, such as loperamide (Imodium®), should also be avoided.

In some people, E. coli O157:H7 infection can cause a complication called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition that is usually treated in an intensive care unit. Blood transfusions and kidney dialysis are often required. With intensive care, the death rate for hemolytic uremic syndrome is 3%-5%.

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What are the long-term consequences of infection?

Persons who only have diarrhea usually recover completely.

A small proportion of persons with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) have immediate complications with lifelong implications, such as blindness, paralysis, persistent kidney failure, and the effects of having part of their bowel removed. Many persons with hemolytic uremic syndrome have mild abnormalities in kidney function many years later.

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What can be done to prevent the infection?

Cattle are the principal source of E. coli O157 infection; they carry E. coli O157 in their intestines. Changes in the preparation of animals for slaughter and in slaughter and processing methods could decrease the contamination of carcasses with E. coli O157 and the subsequent contamination of meat. Testing ground beef for E. coli O157 and withholding it from the market until the test is negative, as many meat producers began doing in 2002, is probably partly responsible for the subsequent decrease in illnesses.

Cattle manure is an important source of E. coli O157. Manure can contaminate the environment, including streams that flow through produce fields and are used for irrigation, pesticide application, or washing. Collaborative efforts are needed to decrease environmental contamination and improve the safety of produce.

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What can you do to prevent E. coli O157:H7 infection?

Cook all ground beef and hamburger thoroughly. Because ground beef can turn brown before disease-causing bacteria are killed, use a digital instant-read meat thermometer to ensure thorough cooking. Ground beef should be cooked until a thermometer inserted into several parts of the patty, including the thickest part, reads at least 160º F. Persons who cook ground beef without using a thermometer can decrease their risk of illness by not eating ground beef patties that are still pink in the middle.


If you are served an undercooked hamburger or other ground beef product in a restaurant, send it back for further cooking. You may want to ask for a new bun and a clean plate, too.


Avoid spreading harmful bacteria in your kitchen. Keep raw meat separate from ready-to-eat foods. Wash hands, counters, and utensils with hot soapy water after they touch raw meat. Never place cooked hamburgers or ground beef on the unwashed plate that held raw patties. Wash meat thermometers in between tests of patties that require further cooking.


Drink only pasteurized milk, juice, or cider. Commercial juice with an extended shelf-life that is sold at room temperature (e.g. juice in cardboard boxes, vacuum sealed juice in glass containers) has been pasteurized, although this is generally not indicated on the label. Juice concentrates are also heated sufficiently to kill pathogens.


Wash fruits and vegetables under running water, especially those that will not be cooked. Be aware that bacteria are sticky, so even thorough washing may not remove all contamination. Remove the outer leaves of leafy vegetables. Children under 5 years of age, immunocompromised persons, and the elderly should avoid eating alfalfa sprouts until their safety can be assured. Persons at high risk of complications from foodborne illness may choose to consume cooked vegetables and peeled fruits.


Drink municipal water that has been treated with chlorine or another effective disinfectant.


Avoid swallowing lake or pool water while swimming. (For more information, see the CDC Healthy Swimming website.)


Make sure that persons with diarrhea, especially children, wash their hands carefully with soap after bowel movements to reduce the risk of spreading infection, and that persons wash hands after changing soiled diapers. Anyone with a diarrheal illness should avoid swimming in public pools or lakes, sharing baths with others, and preparing food for others.  (+ info)

I recently had my sigmoid colon cut and stapled, when can I have anal sex? Please advise.?


Due to a brief case of diverticulitus, I needed to have a small portion of my sigmoid colon cut out..when can I engage in anal sex again?
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Anal sex is wrong, maybe too much sex in the ass is what lead to diverticulitus. Stop! go and have sex with a female in her vagina, and not in her ass or any man's.  (+ info)

where can I found out how to stimulate the sigmoid valve in my 7 month old to relieve stomach distention?


my son has down syndrome and all the doctors say the stomach distention is from low muscle tone - after 30 minutes of suffering he is about to pass gas and stool but he seems to be in soo much pain for htat 30 minutes. Someone told me about sigmoid valve stimulation but i am not sure of the technique.
my son has down syndrome and all the doctors say the stomach distention is from low muscle tone - after 30 minutes of suffering he is able to pass gas and stool but he seems to be in soo much pain for that 30 minutes. Someone told me about sigmoid valve stimulation but i am not sure of the technique.
baby has many many doctors GI, Development, Feeding, etc... he is fed through a feeding tube because we doesn't have the muscle tone to suck a bottle. Formulas have changed many times. We see improvements but until he is past this problem I am looking for a way to ease his discomfort.
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Surprisingly a chiropractor can help babies & children. My neice had terrible colic; she was taken to a trusted DC, and after a couple adjustments the baby was much improved. At 7 months your baby should be able to handle small amounts of ginger juice (fresh minced ginger can be found in the produce section with the minced garlic). Just a couple drops per feeding can really assist in digestion & gas relief. I use ginger for nausia & gas; it is wonderful!  (+ info)

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