Why does emitine block CD8-positive T cell responses but not CD4-positive T cell responses?
Why does emitine block CD8-positive T cell responses but not CD4-positive T cell responses? Influenza hemagglutinin is used in vaccines. Which is more likely to respond to it CD4 or CD8-positive cells? Why?
emitine is a protein synthesis inhibitor which prevent de novo protein synthesis. (+ info
CD4-positive helper T-cells function by:?
a. direct cytotoxic action
b. facilitating all immune system activity
c. production of immunoglobulins
d. inactivating allergens
the answer is C...production of immunoglobulins.
BUT not in direct way..it is a long journey but the final product is immunoglobulin ( IG). (+ info
can a person diagnose with an idiopathic scoliosis have a chance to recover and learn parkour?
I have been diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis which is not that extreme and that makes me avoid certain strenious activities. So somehow I'm finding ways to recover if not, impede the development of my condition. And I'm dreaming of having an active physical lifestyle someday so I'm hoping you guys can help me out. I'm interested in parkour and free running, wushu, and the like. Thanks!
What degree of curvature are we talking about? Are you done growing? If it's not extreme why are you avoiding activities (MD orders, pain, fear of hurting your back)? My upper curve was in the 60s when I was fused and I was in a back brace and I still was as active as I could be much to my mom's chagrin. My lower curve is still in the 40s, but is stable.
Talk with your physician about your activity restrictions for now and your outlook in the future.
I'm as normally functioning as anyone (are any of us really "normal"?). I never got off schedule with school. Graduated college at 20 and have been an OR nurse for 17 years, one of the most physically demanding areas of nursing (lots of lifting and lots of standing in one place for long periods). I've had 2 children without difficulty (didn't even use an epidural). I love to travel (I don't set off metal detectors), yoga (though the fusion prevents some positions), and SCUBA dive. I can pretty much do anything I want...but don't tell my husband I use the scoliosis to get out of vacuuming :) (+ info
What are some treatments for severe Idiopathic craniofacial erythema?
I think i have severe Idiopathic craniofacial erythema because my face goes red whenever someone even says my name. School it is most common and im getting tired of being scared to go to school fearing by face will turn red and it gets worse when everyone notices. I feel like im on fire and then i can't concentrate on school work, or ask questions or comment so my face goes red so i dont get very good "participation" marks. Please help me.
According to experiencefestival.com, "A number of treatments are available. The most successful non-invasive procedure is cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which attempts to alleviate the anxiety felt by sufferers.
"In extreme cases a surgical procedure known as Endoscopic Transthoracic Sympathicotomy (ETS) is available. Pioneered by surgeons in Sweden, this procedure has recently become increasingly controversial due to its many potential adverse effects. Patients who have undergone the procedure frequently complain of compensatory sweating and fatigue. ETS is now normally only considered in extreme cases where other treatments have been ineffective."
I checked out Wikipedia.org for the definition of Endoscopic Transthoracic Sympathicotomy, and it says that, "Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is a surgical procedure where certain portions of the sympathetic nerve trunk are destroyed. ETS is used to treat hyperhidrosis, facial blushing, Raynaud's disease and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. By far the most common complaint treated with ETS is palmar hyperhidrosis, or "sweaty palms". In this disorder, the palms may constantly shed so much sweat that the affected person is unable to handle paper, sign documents, keep clothes dry, or shake hands. The result is often social phobia so severe as to be disabling.
Sympathectomy refers to the destruction of tissue anywhere in either of the two sympathetic trunks, long chains of nerve ganglia lying along either side of the spine. Each trunk is broadly divided into three regions: cervical (up by the neck), thoracic (in the chest) and lumbar (in the lower back). The most common area targeted in sympathectomy is the upper thoracic region, that part of the sympathetic chain lying between the first and fifth thoracic vertebrae."
I hope you find something that will bring you the relief I'm sure you're desperate for. (+ info
Are there any parents with children who have idiopathic anaphalyxis?
I have a 9 yr old with idiopathic anaphalyxis. This means she has anaphalactic shock with no known cause. I was hoping someone out there would be going through this and would have some suggestions or ways they deal with this.
Idiopathic Anaphylaxis (IA) is a well-described syndrome of anaphylaxis without any recognised external trigger. These patients present with the same symptoms as patients with other types of anaphylactic reaction. The attacks occur with variable frequency. Fatalities have been reported in patients who have been diagnosed with idiopathic anaphylaxis
Symptoms & signs do not differ from other forms of anaphylaxis and include:
• Hypotension & increased pulse rate
• Wheezing & stridor
• Hives, angioedema, flushing, & itching
• Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty swallowing
• Light-headedness and loss of consciousness
In the series of Ditto et al  all of them experienced hives and angioedema, whereas 60% experienced symptoms of upper airway obstruction. Individual patients usually tend to have the same manifestations on repeated episodes. Progression from hives and itching to life-threatening symptoms of wheeze, loss of consciousness, and laryngeal edema may occur in 10 min to hours after onset.
Classification of Idiopathic Anaphylaxis (IA)
(Adopted from Roy Patterson, M.D. textbook on Idiopathic Anaphylaxis)
Generalized (G) Urticaria or angioedema with bronchospasm (asthma)
Hypotension (reduce blood pressure), syncope
Angioedema (A) Angioedema with upper airway compromise
(Laryngeal, pharyngeal, tongue)
Frequency of episodes More than 6 episodes per year: Frequent (F)
Less than 6 episodes per year: Infrequent
Treatment depends on the severity and frequency of the attacks. Steroids seem to be universally effective in IA. If symptoms are not controlled on 60 mg daily by the end of 6 weeks, the diagnosis of IA should be questioned.
Prednisone 60 mg
Hydroxyzine 25 mg
Go to the nearest emergency room
Programme for IA-F
Arrange acute treatment
Prednisone 40 — 60 mg daily for at least 1 week or until symptoms controlled, then decrease to alternate day and the wean by 5 — 10 mg each month.
If it is proving difficult to wean off steroids ketotifen should be added 
Cetirizine 10 mg daily or Hydroxyzine 25 mg tds
Follow-up based on response to treatment
Programme for IA-I
Arrange acute treatment
No chronic medicTreatment recommendations for idiopathic anaphylaxis patients depend on the frequency and severity of their exacerbations. Whereas care should be individualized, some simple guidelines should be universally applied (Figure 1). All idiopathic anaphylaxis patients should be educated about idiopathic anaphylaxis and taught how to manage an acute attack. Immediately after the first signs of anaphylaxis, adult patients should inject 0.3 ml of 1:1000 w:v aqueous epinephrine intramuscularly followed by oral doses of both an antihistamine (e.g. diphenhydramine 50 mg or hydroxyzine 25 mg) and 60 mg prednisone. This emergency kit should always be within reach and should be checked occasionally to make sure it has not expired. After use, patients should be transported immediately to the nearest emergency departmentation
Patients classified with frequent symptoms require maintenance therapy, which should include 40-60 mg of daily prednisone and an antihistamine, such as cetirizine 10 mg, hydroxyzine 25-50 mg, or benadryl 25-50 mg. Prednisone should be given daily for at least 1 week, but if symptoms are not controlled after 6 weeks then the diagnosis may be called into question. When the condition is controlled, prednisone may be decreased to every-other-day dosing and subsequently weaned by 5-10 mg each month. After the prednisone is discontinued, the antihistamines may then be tapered. Although steroids seem to be universally effective in idiopathic anaphylaxis, the natural history of the condition may also lead to remission.
Those patients who fail steroid tapering (classified as corticosteroid-dependent idiopathic anaphylaxis or malignant idiopathic anaphylaxis) may be tried on alternative medications. Wong et al.studied nine steroid-dependent idiopathic anaphylaxis patients and reported that the addition of ketotifen helped seven of them significantly reduce or discontinue their steroids. Alternative medications that can be used include oral cromolyn, oral albuterol, or montelukast. To avoid burdensome and costly drug regimens, these second-line agents should be discontinued if they do not obviously decrease the patient's prednisone dose.
Pediatric patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis should be classified and treated in a similar fashion to adults, while taking into account dose adjustments for steroids, epinephrine, and antihistamines. Of the second-line medications, montelukast has been approved for children over the age of 2 years, whereas both cromolyn and albuterol have also been approved for infants.
Although the literature has placed limited emphasis on the perioperative management of idiopathic anaphylaxis, there are cases of surgically induced exacerbations.[4, 44] A prophylactic regimen of perioperative steroids is aimed at preventing intra and postoperative anaphylaxis. Patients who experience frequent exacerbations before surgery should not undergo elective procedures until their disease is under optimal control. Patients who have had an episode of idiopathic anaphylaxis within the past year but are well controlled should be treated prophylactically with 40-60 mg prednisone per day on the 5 days preceding surgery and then 100 mg intravenous hydrocortisone every 8 h during surgery and through the recovery period.
All patients diagnosed with idiopathic anaphylaxis should receive a Medic Alert bracelet or other identification that clarifies their diagnosis. They should also be educated about what symptoms to look for and how to administer their emergency epinephrine, prednisone, and antihistamine properly. Physicians should reassure their patients that compliance with the prescribed regimen offers an excellent remission rate, in excess of 80%. Patients also benefit from knowing that it is unlikely that an unforeseen external allergen is responsible for their symptoms.
Follow to assess response & compliance (+ info
I only know of 1 more person with Idiopathic CD4 Lymphopaenia in the NW of UK.He can't speak english.?
When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
Doctors often recommend drug therapy for patients who are committed to taking all their medications and have a CD4 count below 350 (indicating immune system suppression).
It is extremely important that patients take all doses of their medications, otherwise the virus will quickly become resistant to the drugs. Therapy always involves a combination of antiviral drugs.
People with HIV infection need to become educated about the disease and treatment so that they can be active partners in making decisions with their health care provider. (+ info
Can I have surgery for my idiopathic scoliosis?
From what I can remember my scoliosis is idiopathic and around 32 or 36 degrees - I can't remember. My parents said that the operation would be classed as cosmetic since hospitals only really allow people with degrees of 40 and above to have surgery.
Is there any way I could get an operation because it's so depressing being constantly reminded of this ugly deformity I have and how I look like a hunch back. Or are there any ACTUALLY effective exercises?
A core strengthening exerciseprogram designed for you by a Physical Therapist can strengthen back muscles and improve or alleviate pain. Same goes for massage and yoga.
Surgery is not entered into lightly. A fusion will not be done for appearance sake. For curves is between 25-40 degrees, a brace may be recommended. Mine upper curve reached the reached 60 before they opted for surgery.
You have to have a strong sense of self and not let it mess with your idea of body image. I had a spinal fusion with iliac crest bone graft in 1985 (13 yrs old). I still have a 40 degree curve, a prominent shoulder blade, one shoulder is higher, my hips a little uneven, and rib prominence on one side. But my spine is stable, no breathing or cardiac problems and I carried to pregnancies without a hitch.
The one shoulder is higher makes it easier to sling a shoulder bag on. And those uneven hips...that one that juts out a little more is a perfect resting spot for an infant.
I have no problem wearing backless things. I think I have a great back scar. The hip scar, not so pretty. But everyone, EVERYONE, has problem areas on their body. I'm an RN, I've seen thousands of naked bodies, no one is perfect. Here are some other famous people who share scoliosis with us: http://www.scoliosis-world.com/famous_people_with_scoliosis.htm
Some concern about one's appearance is normal, but an obsession with one's appearance is not. If you think you might be more than concerned, talk to a professional. Are you being treated at a Shriner’s Hospital/Clinic by your doctor? As a former patient and now a healthcare professional, I think it's absolutely the best place for scoliosis patients under 18! If you are, ask the docs/nurses if they can arrange for you to visit/talk with other patients or people who will be involved in your care. Other places may do this too, but I think Shriner’s goes above and beyond for their patients. (+ info
My dog has idiopathic vestibular syndrome and has no appetite. How can I get her to eat?
She is 15 y and has had this illness for more than two weeks now, and although she is steadier on her feet, she is very weak and refuses to eat. I am feeding her by hand and we have tried dog food, cat food, baby food, chicken, liver, raw food, treats. She will pick a few morsels for a while and then totally refuses to eat.
Try scrambled hamburg and white rice (+ info
What is the best way to treat feline idiopathic cystitis?
I have a male cat you just came down with it about a week ago. He'll pee alittle bit in his litter box but then pee is differnt places.
Hi Gatlin... feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) which commonly is associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. However each case is different and the calcium oxalate can be a disorder of it's own apart from FIC. However, the specialized diet management is key to dissolve the calcium oxalate stones is similar to treatment for cats who are diagnosed with FIC.
I have a cat who was diagnosed with Feline Interstitial Idiopathic Cystitis (FIC). FIC is commonly seen in cats between the ages of 1 - 10 years of age and can be caused by several factors, and combinations of these factors, which include obesity, stress, alkaline urinary pH, water and fibre intake in the animal's diet, and possibly high ash and magnesium content in the animal's diet thought this hasn't been substantiated. Recurrence is common with FIC cats so preventive measures such a canned food diet to keep hydration levels high plus any other ways to encourage more water consumption is a must, easy access to multiple litter boxes in addition to regular check ups as well as supplementation with prescriptions depending on the severity of the condition.
Cats who eat dry cat foods tend to suffer from recurring episodes and this seems to be a common denominator with cats diagnosed with various types of FIC. The idea is to acidify the urine (like cranberry juice does for humans) because cats with FIC have urine pH that is more alkaline so your goal is to reverse this and canned foods have been known to achieve this with positive results.
Additionally, it's important to schedule feed a cat so you can monitor servings taken in during the day http://www.vet.cornell.edu/fhc/news/feed.htm which seems to keep the urine from becoming more alkaline.
Furthermore, for cats who suffer from FIC the hydration in the canned products helps metabolize food better and are also completely devoid of carbohydrates, which is more optimal for the feline's body and while at the same acidifies the urine pH which is perfect for cats who have FLUTD . When cats eat raw meat in the wild they get hydration from the fresh meat juices as well as some roughage from the animals who are natural herbivores. We are have been exposed to so many commercial ads regarding dry food for cats, but in reality it's the manufacturer's who benefit rather than the cats. Cats are not naturally designed to eat dry--the products were designed for convenience for the owner.
All seafood cat food products should be avoided as they are high in phosphorous and turns urine pH more alkaline so canned meat products should only be used (e.g. chicken, turkey, beef, etc). You'll have to read the labels on each of the canned food as many manufacturers add some type of fish to flavour the food which you want to avoid. Premium cat foods such as Wellness, Innova EVO, California Natural, Wysong, Life Abundance do not have any fish ingredients.
Furthermore, your veterinarian can explore which medications can help reduce the inflammation of the bladder. What works for one cat may not for another. We used Elavil (aka amitriptyline) for an off labeled use--antidepressant which helps reduce inflammation as well-- with great success and mixed water in with the canned food to increase moisture has reduce his recurrences with the FIC.
Here are some websites that I've researched to help prepare us for the long road ahead to minimize the repeat episodes:
Urolithiasis in Cats:
http://www.cat-world.com.au/UrolithiasisInCats.htm (+ info
Will it help you live longer if you stay on pregnazone if you have idiopathic fibrosis of the lung?
I was just wondering because my grandma had isiopathic fibrosis of the lung and I think that the doctor took her off of it but the actor Jerry Lewis has idiopathic fibrosis of the lung and taking pregnazone and he's still living. I was just wondering if taking her off of that killed her sooner.
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