FAQ - Ventricular Septal Rupture
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is ventricular septal defect a genetic defect? can it be inherited?


The cause of VSD is not yet known. This defect often occurs along with other congenital heart defects.
A ventricular septal defect is one or more openings in the interventricular septum, producing a shunt between ventricles. Large defects result in a significant left-to-right shunt and produce dyspnea with feeding and poor growth. A loud, harsh, holosystolic murmur at the lower left sternal border is common. Recurrent respiratory infections and heart failure may develop. Diagnosis is by echocardiography. Defects may close spontaneously during infancy or require surgical repair. Endocarditis prophylaxis is recommended.  (+ info)

Atrial and Ventricular Septal Defect?


I think I have both. When I was a baby, I mean. Any tips for me to stay healthy? I had surgery when I was like 7 months old. I have to go to the hospital every year for an EKG, and other tests.
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Ventricular Septal Defect

Over the past month, we have discussed the concept of minimally invasive heart surgery, and the use of this novel technique in treating coronary artery disease , heart valve disease and birth defects of the heart. This week, we will go on to something different, the birth defect called Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD).

For more information on minimally invasive surgery, visit the MICAS website. And there's a lot on congenital heart disease at Heart Disease Online.

What is a Ventricular Septal Defect ?

I have discussed atrial septal defects elsewhere. Well, ventricular septal defects - also called VSD - are similar. A VSD is a "hole" in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart - the ventricles. This hole may be small, medium-sized or large, and may be single or multiple. It may occur in different parts of the wall, and may sometimes be found along with other heart defects.

What does a VSD do ?

The wall between ventricles is meant to separate blood passing through each. This is to prevent mixing of "impure" blood from the veins with "pure" blood going to t e arteries.

When the wall is "broken", mixing occurs. Fortunately, though, only "pure" blood flows from the left ventricle into the right; no flow is seen from the right ventricle across the VSD and so "impure" venous blood does not reach the arteries. This is because pressure in the left ventricle is much higher than the right, and fluids always flow from places of high to lower pressure.

Because of this flow from left to right ventricle across the VSD - also called a LEFT to RIGHT SHUNT - more blood than normal flows into the lungs. Just as in atrial septal defects (ASD), this causes frequent "chest colds" and breathing difficulty in children. When the VSD is large, in a very small child, lung blood flow may be so enormous that the tiny ventricles cannot pump such a volume. This causes HEART FAILURE. Heart failure in a child produces rapid shallow breathing, excessive sweating, inability to feed well, irritability, constant crying, and a failure to grow normally.

Have you felt a kitten purring ? Well, here's something interesting about these children with VSD. When you place your hand over their chest, there is a sensation just like that - called a THRILL. It is produced by the forceful flow of blood across the VSD !

One effect seen in VSD - but not in ASD - is the rapid development of changes in the blood vessels of the lungs. These arteries and veins become thick walled and hard early in life. The reason for this is perhaps because blood from the left ventricle, which is the most powerful chamber of the heart, is pumped under high pressure across the VSD into the lungs. To withstand such force, the tubes carrying blood become thick and strong.

What happens if VSD's are left untreated ?

The changes I have just described keep progressing. Soon the heart fails to keep up with the high blood flow, and heart failure sets in. When the lung blood vessels become very thick, the problem of PULMONARY HYPERTENSION arises. This is a situation where the lung arteries are severely damaged, and at this stage, even surgical repair of the VSD will not be able to cure the disease. When the VSD is located in the upper part of the inter-ventricular wall, close to the aortic valve, it can slowly make the aortic valve "leaky" - a condition called AORTIC REGURGITATION. This usually takes many years. In small VSD's, none of these things are seen often. But there is one complication peculiar to a small VSD - INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS. Due to a jet of blood across the VSD, the inner lining of the heart gets damaged. Bacteria can infect this injured layer easily.

VSD along with other defects

VSD may be found alone, as the only defect in a heart that is otherwise normal. Or it may form a part of a "complex" of abnormalities. In this case, it may produce different effects. Some examples of such diseases are TETRALOGY of FALLOT, TRANSPOSITION of the GREAT VESSELS and DOUBLE OUTLET RIGHT VENTRICLE. To avoid confusion, I will describe these conditions separately in other articles.

Should a VSD be repaired ?

There is another special thing about VSD's. Some of them close even without any treatment ! There is yet no way to definitely predict which ones will close. The best chance for closure is in the first six months of life. After this, spontaneous closure becomes rarer. If by the tenth year of life the VSD as not closed by itself, it needs to be repaired.

There is one exception to this rule - the SMALL VSD. There is still much controversy about this defect. While surgeons advise that small VSD's be repaired, cardiologists usually recommend "no treatment". The arguments against repair are the small risk and discomfort involved with surgery, and the absence of any symptoms in patients. The surgeons however claim that

* repair is safe and has very few complications
* all chances of future effects, particularly infective endocarditis, are avoided
* the child and parent are freed of the "psychologic" stigma of heart disease

The decision to repair these small defects would perhaps depend on the hospital, and the philosophies of the parent and the doctor !

When should a VSD be closed ? What are the ways to close a VSD ? Well, these are major topics in themselves, so I'll discuss them next week. Keep in touch again.



Theoretical approach to discrimination of atrial and ventricular septal defects when the left-to-right cardiac shunt... Open this result in new window
Theoretical approach to discrimination of atrial and ventricular septal defects when the left-to-right cardiac shunt is diagnosed by radionuclide angiography Theoretical approach to discrimination of atrial and ventricular septal defects when ...



Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
atrial septal defect

What It Is
The septum is a wall that separates the heart's left and right sides. Septal defects are sometimes called a "hole" in the heart. A defect between the heart's two upper chambers (the atria) is called an atrial septal defect (ASD).

When there is a large defect between the atria, a large amount of oxygen-rich (red) blood leaks from the heart's left side back to the right side. Then this blood is pumped back to the lungs, despite already having been refreshed with oxygen. This is inefficient, because already-oxygenated blood displaces blood that needs oxygen. Many people with this defect have few, if any, symptoms.

Surgical Therapy
Closing an atrial septal defect in childhood can prevent serious problems later in life. The long-term outlook is excellent. If atrial septal defects are diagnosed in adulthood, the defect is also repaired. Rarely, the defect is left unrepaired if there's pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs). Your cardiologist can determine if the defect should be closed.

Ongoing Care

Medical
After an ASD is closed, patients need follow-up with a cardiologist. Only rarely will they need to take medicine. Your cardiologist can monitor you with noninvasive tests if needed. These include electrocardiograms, Holter monitors, exercise stress tests and echocardiograms. They will help show if more procedures, such as a cardiac catheterization, are needed.

Activity Restrictions
Activity restrictions are almost never needed unless there are associated problems that you and your doctor have discussed.

Endocarditis Prevention
Not needed.

Problems You May Have
People with repaired atrial septal defects rarely have any problems. Those who have palpitations or faint need to be reevaluated by their cardiologist and may need medical therapy. Also, if the ASD is diagnosed late in life, the heart may be less able to pump. This can require diuretics, drugs to help the heart pump better and drugs to control blood pressure. If pulmonary hypertension develops (which is rare), some people may need more medications.

Will You Need More Surgery?
Once an ASD has been closed, it's unlikely that more surgery will be needed. Rarely, a patient may have a residual hole. Whether it will need to be closed depends upon its size.





Of the 8-12 million people who are affected by peripheral artery disease (PAD) nearly 75% will never experience symptoms. Women are less likely to have symptoms than men.
read more...  (+ info)

nursing diagnosis for children with ventricular septal defect?


To others answering this question. A nursing diagnosis is not a medical diagnosis they are two different things. Nurses are taught how to develop nursing diagnosis' in nursing school.

An example of a ND would be "Alteration in tissue perfusion related to hypovolumia". I will not answer this question because it sounds like a homework assignment for someone in nursing school.  (+ info)

2 Months old Baby has to be undergone through Ventricular septal defect operation. Whcih Policy helps in claim


Cost for this operation would be about 1.5 Lacs.
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As far as my knowledge is concerned, no insurance company gives you policy for congential heart diseases like VSD and ASD (my son suffers from ASD and luckly and thanks GOD that it is not as serious as VSD or even a complex ASD situation). You please check out with the insurance companies. If you divulge that the child has VSD, they would not give any policy but hiding facts is unethicial. All the best  (+ info)

Concerning Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD's)?


Can anyone tell me discovered it and/or some statics on it? (Like Blah out of Blah children have this)

I hope im not asking for too much and I would really appreciate if you stated what site OR book you found this in
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http://www.congenitalheartdefects.com/stats.html

http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4576

Hope these help  (+ info)

Ventricular Septal Defect. Under what signs or symptoms will surgery be done?


I was born with this. So I grew up being monitored till I was 19. Now I am 31 and haven't had much monitoring since then. I am seeing a Cardiologist for this because I cant run like I used to, my legs and abdomen are swollen. The Dr ordered a new test I never had done before. Trans Esophageal Echo. An ultra sound from inside my stomach. I haven't had children yet and I am wondering if it would be best for me to have children before or after the surgery.
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The new (TEE) study will help get a better look at the opening between the chambers. If surgery were to be done, it would give the surgeon a precise idea about the size and location of the hole. Usually surgery is determined by the size of the hole and ANY signs or symptoms the patient may be experiencing. No one is too interested in performing a major surgery if the patient is not adversely affected in some way by the "problem." Shortness of breath and fluid retention are common problems associated with heart failure (likely for the hole).

As far as bearing children...if this is a condition requiring surgical repair, you are much much better off waiting until after you've had the surgery and after you've recovered from the surgery to have children. Pregnancy is a huge stress on the body and you want the best function your heart you can have.

Good luck. I hope this helps.  (+ info)

Does a Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) or Mitral Valve Defect disqualify me from joining the Military?


I have a small heart murmur known as a VSD. I have maintained a healthy lifestyle and have no problems. It's so small most PCP doctors can not even hear it. I've seen cardiologists and they see no problems in my health. I'm concerned that if I disclose this information, I will be disqualified from joining the military. The medical screening portion is completed at that end and I'd hate to go through the whole process only to be rejected. I'd rather know up-front what my chances are of passing the medical evaluation.
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have you actually been to a cardiologist and been diagnosed with a VSD? because you say heart murmur then mention VSD. A heart murmur is NOT a heart problem and it is not a VSD a heart murmur is just a sound the heart sometimes makes and it is usually innocent but sometimes it can be caused by a heart problem. A VSD is an actual hole in the heart and it can caused a murmur. And yes i think it can disqualify you, you should really ask your recruiting officer though.  (+ info)

How to get insurance to coverage nasal septal deviation and rhinoplasty?


I have a nasal septal deviation with nasal septal spur, I would like insurance to cover this surgery along with rhinoplasty. Will some insurance companies cover the rhinoplasty?
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Some insurance companies do cover rhinoplastys! However, you will need to provide information that it is for a medical reason, such as air flow is restricted. If the rhinoplasty is not covered by insurance than it can run you anywhere from $4000 - $12,000. So I hope for your sake it is covered by your insurance company.

Hope this helped!!  (+ info)

What is a septal infarct and what is the maximum period of getting cardiac enzymes for infarct diagnosis?


I had severe chest pain and after nearly 72 hours was taken to a doctor who did my EKG and advised to rush to hospital as either I already had a heart attack or in process of having it.

The caridiac emzymes were negative however, the EKG was abnormal, later echocardio test confirmed there was a septal infarct. Six months later I had the chest pain again and was admitted in emergency where later I had to go through catherization and was told that I had 50% plaque in one of the artry and now taking crestor, plavix, aspirin and two more medicine. Does this mean that six months ago I had a heart attack and due to non availability of any insurance plan could not have angiography or catherization?
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septal infarct= an infarction (death of cells) in the septum that separates the 2 ventricles of the heart.

max. around 14 days, some rise within 2 hours & decrease quickly...

there are criteria for when a patient undergoes cath. (angiography can be carried out during cardiac (heart) cathertarization) depending on presentation, EKG findings. so it is not clear from what u said if u needed cathetarization on u're 1st presentation or not..

for more info on cardiac enzymes:
http://classes.kumc.edu/son/nurs420/unit5/cardiac_enzymes.htm  (+ info)

What does a symptomatic supra ventricular rhythem disturbance mean?


I've had to wear a 24 hour ECG monitor to pick up evidence of a symptomatic supra ventricular rhythm disturbance, but I do not know what this mean? Can any one help? Really not sure what supra ventricular rhythm disturbance is!!
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"supraventricular" means that the rhythm originates above the ventricles, the main pumping chambers of the heart.

Symptomatic means that it causes you problems, such as dizziness, shortness of breath, etc.  (+ info)

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