FAQ - Xerophthalmia
(Powered by Yahoo! Answers)

Is there a cure for xerophthalmia?


I've had dry eyes for years. My condition got worse over the last two years, due to my excessive use of contact lenses. My doctor perscribed me eye drops that only have a temporary effect. He says that there is no permanent cure for xerophthalmia, but I was wondering if there are any (home) remedies I could try.
----------

It depends on what is causing the problem. One of the causes of xerophthalmia is vitamin A deficiency. If this is the case, supplementation with vitamin A will remedy the problem. In any case, you should be eating foods rich in vitamin A, such as: eggs, meat, milk, cheese, cream, liver, kidney, cod, and halibut fish oil. However, all of these sources -- except for skim milk that has been fortified with Vitamin A -- are high in saturated fat and cholesterol.

Carotenoids are dark-colored dyes found in plant foods that can turn into a form of vitamin A. One such carotenoid is beta-carotene. Sources of beta-carotene are carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, winter squashes, cantaloupe, pink grapefruit, apricots, broccoli, spinach, and most dark green, leafy vegetables. The more intense the color of a fruit or vegetable, the higher the beta-carotene content. These vegetable sources of beta-carotene are free of fat and cholesterol.

The other obvious thing that I would suggest is to stop wearing contact lenses if you see that it is making the problem worse.  (+ info)

what is xerophthalmia and what are the symptoms of this?


i came across this word in a food and nutrition grade 12 exam paper.
----------

(m)

Xerophthalmia (Greek for dry eyes) is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears. It may be caused by a deficiency in Vitamin A and is sometimes used to describe that lack, although there may be other causes.

Xerophthalmia is a term that usually implies a destructive dryness of the conjunctival epithelium due to dietary vitamin A deficiency—a condition virtually forgotten in developed countries, but still causing much damage in developing countries. Other forms of dry eye are associated with aging, poor lid closure, scarring from previous injury, or autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and these can all cause chronic conjunctivitis.

Xerophthalmia can be associated with systemic diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and hypothyroidism; deficiency of vitamin A; and the use of some medications including antihistamines, nasal decongestants, tranquilizers, and anti-depressant drugs. Xerophthalmia results from inadequate function of the lacrimal glands which produce tears. When xerophthalmia is due to vitamin A deficiency, the condition begins with night blindness and conjunctival xerosis (dryness of the eye membranes) and progresses to corneal xerosis (dryness of the cornea), and, in the late stages, to keratomalacia (softening of the cornea).

The treatment depends on the cause. Artificial tears, which lubricate the eye, are the principal symptomatic treatment for dry eye. They are available over-the-counter as eye drops. Using humidifiers, wearing wrap-around glasses when outside, and avoiding outside windy and dry conditions may bring relief. For people with severe cases of dry eye, temporary or permanent closure of the tear drain (small openings at the inner corner of the eyelids where tears drain from the eye) may be helpful. Also known as conjunctivitis arida.  (+ info)

Xerophthalmia disease?


what causes the disease and what population are susceptible to this disease?
----------

Xerophthalmia (Greek for dry eyes) is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears. It may be caused by a deficiency in Vitamin A and is sometimes used to describe that lack, although there may be other causes.

Xerophthalmia is a term that usually implies a destructive dryness of the conjunctival epithelium due to dietary vitamin A deficiency—a condition virtually forgotten in developed countries, but still causing much damage in developing countries. Other forms of dry eye are associated with aging, poor lid closure, scarring from previous injury, or autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and these can all cause chronic conjunctivitis.

Xerophthalmia can be associated with systemic diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and hypothyroidism; deficiency of vitamin A; and the use of some medications including antihistamines, nasal decongestants, tranquilizers, and anti-depressant drugs. Xerophthalmia results from inadequate function of the lacrimal glands which produce tears. When xerophthalmia is due to vitamin A deficiency, the condition begins with night blindness and conjunctival xerosis (dryness of the eye membranes) and progresses to corneal xerosis (dryness of the cornea), and, in the late stages, to keratomalacia (softening of the cornea).

The treatment depends on the cause. Artificial tears, which lubricate the eye, are the principal symptomatic treatment for dry eye. They are available over-the-counter as eye drops. Using humidifiers, wearing wrap-around glasses when outside, and avoiding outside windy and dry conditions may bring relief. For people with severe cases of dry eye, temporary or permanent closure of the tear drain (small openings at the inner corner of the eyelids where tears drain from the eye) may be helpful.  (+ info)

deficiency of vitamin A,the various kinds incl. xerophthalmia,follicular keratosis,xerophthalmia,bitot spots..


pictures,or videos nd othr relevant info...
----------

Vitamin A deficiency exists when the chronic failure to eat sufficient amounts of vitamin A or beta-carotene results in levels of blood-serum vitamin A that are below a defined range. Beta-carotene is a form of pre-vitamin A, which is readily converted to vitamin A in the body. Night blindness is the first symptom of vitamin A deficiency. Prolonged and severe vitamin A deficiency can produce total and irreversible blindness.

Vitamin A (called retinol in mammals) is a fat-soluble vitamin. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin A is 1.0 mg/day for the adult man and 0.8 mg/day for the adult woman. Since beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A in the body, the body's requirement for vitamin A can be supplied entirely by beta-carotene. Six mg of beta-carotene are considered to be the equivalent of 1 mg of vitamin A. The best sources of vitamin A are eggs, milk, butter, liver, and fish, such as herring, sardines, and tuna. Beef is a poor source of vitamin A. Plants do not contain vitamin A, but they do contain beta-carotene and other carotenoids. The best sources of beta-carotene are dark-green, orange, and yellow vegetables; spinach, carrots, oranges, and sweet potatoes are excellent examples. Cereals are poor sources of beta-carotene.

Vitamin A is used for two functions in the body. Used in the eye, it is a component of the eye's light-sensitive parts, containing rods and cones, that allow for night-vision or for seeing in dim-light circumstances. Vitamin A (retinol) occurs in the rods. Another form of Vitamin A, retinoic acid, is used in the body for regulating the development of various tissues, such as the cells of the skin, and the lining of the lungs and intestines. Vitamin A is important during embryological development, since, without vitamin A, the fertilized egg cannot develop into a fetus.

Vitamin A deficiency occurs with the chronic consumption of diets that are deficient in both vitamin A and beta-carotene. When vitamin A deficiency exists in the developed world, it tends to happen in alcoholics or in people with diseases that affect the intestine's ability to absorb fat. Examples of such diseases are celiac disease (chronic nutritional disorder), cystic fibrosis, and cholestasis (bile-flow failure or interference). Vitamin A deficiency occurred in infants during the early 1900s in Denmark. The deficiency resulted when milk fat was made into butter for export, leaving the by-product (skimmed milk) for infant feeding. Vitamin A deficiency has taken place in infants in impoverished populations in India, where the only foods fed to the infants were low in beta-carotene. Vitamin A deficiency is also common in areas like Southeast Asia, where polished rice, which lacks the vitamin, is a major part of the diet.

The earliest symptom of vitamin A deficiency is night blindness. Prolonged deficiency results in drying of the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and extends over the forepart of the eyeball). With continued vitamin A deficiency, the drying extends to the cornea (xerophthalamia). The cornea eventually shrivels up and becomes ulcerated (keratinomalacia). Superficial, foamy gray triangular spots may appear in the white of the eye (Bitot's spots). Finally, inflammation and infection occur in the interior of the eye, resulting in total and irreversible blindness.

Vitamin A status is measured by tests for retinol. Blood-serum retinol concentrations of 30-60 mg/dl are considered in the normal range. Levels that fall below this range indicate vitamin A deficiency. Night blindness is measured by a technique called electroretinography. Xerophthalamia, keratinomalacia, and Bitot's spots are diagnosed visually by trained medical personnel.

Vitamin A deficiency can be prevented or treated by taking vitamin supplements or by getting injections of the vitamin. The specific doses given are oral retinyl palmitate (110 mg), retinyl acetate (66 mg), or injected retinyl palmitate (55 mg) administered on each of two successive days, and once a few weeks later if symptoms are not relieved.

The prognosis for correcting night blindness is excellent. Xerophthalamia can be corrected with vitamin A therapy. Ulcerations, tissue death, and total blindness, caused by severe vitamin A deficiency, cannot be treated with vitamin A.

Vitamin A deficiency can be prevented by including foods rich in vitamin A or beta-carotene as a regular component of the diet; liver, meat, eggs, milk, and dairy products are examples. Foods rich in beta-carotene include red peppers, carrots, pumpkins, as well as those just mentioned. Margarine is rich in beta-carotene, because this chemical is used as a coloring agent in margarine production. In Africa, Indonesia, and the Philippines, vitamin A deficiency is prevented by public health programs that supply children with injections of the vitamin.

Key Terms

Bitot's spots
Bitot's spots are superficial, foamy gray, triangular spots on the white of the eyeball.

Carotenoids
Carotenoids are yellow to deep-red pigments.

Conjunctiva
The conjunctiva is a clear layer of cells that covers the eye and directly contacts the atmosphere. The conjunctiva is about five-cells thick.

Cornea
The cornea is a clear layer of cells that covers the eye, just under the conjunctiva. The cornea is about 50-cells thick.

Fat-soluble vitamin
Fat-soluble vitamins can be dissolved in oil or in melted fat.

Water-soluble vitamins can be dissolved in water or juice.

Keratinomalacia
Keratinomalacia is ulceration of the cornea.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
The Recommended Dietary Allowances are quantities of nutrients in the diet that are required to maintain good health in people. RDAs are established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, and may be revised every few years. A separate RDA value exists for each nutrient. The RDA values refer to the amount of nutrient expected to maintain good health in people. The actual amounts of each nutrient required to maintain good health in specific individuals differ from person to person.

Xerophthalmia
Xerophthalmia is a dry, thickened, lusterless condition of the eyeball resulting from vitamin A deficiency.

For Your Information

Books

Brody, T. Nutritional Biochemistry. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc., 1998.
Combs, G. The Vitamins. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc., 1992.
Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary Allowances. 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.

Periodicals
Filteau, S. M., and A. M. Tomkins."Vitamin A Supplementation in Developing Countries." Archives of Disease in Childhood 72 (1995): 106-109.

______________________  (+ info)

vitamin A deficiency,incl. night blindness,xerophthalmia,follicular keratosis,nd its othr effects?


pictures,tables,ne videos..etc fr a power point presntation..plzzzz help meeee
----------

Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD):

Medical Care

In the United States, VAD can easily be prevented by consuming foods recommended in the Diet section below.

Treatment of subclinical VAD includes consumption of vitamin A–rich foods, including liver, beef, chicken, eggs, fortified milk, carrots, mango, sweet potatoes, and leafy green vegetables.

For VAD syndromes, treatment includes daily oral supplements of 600 mcg (2000 IU) for children aged 3 years or younger, 900 mcg (3000 IU) for children aged 4-8 years, 1700 mcg (5665 IU) for children aged 9-13 years, 2800 mcg (9335 IU) for persons aged 14-18 years, and 3000 mcg (10,000 IU) for all adults.

Therapeutic doses for severe disease include 60,000 mcg (200,000 IU), which has been shown to reduce child mortality rates by 35-70%.

Consultations

Consult endocrinologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, nutritionists, infectious disease specialists, and dermatologists as indicated.

Diet

The 2000 US Department of Agriculture and Department of Health and Human Services Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend consumption of a variety of foods for a comprehensive nutrient intake.

Liver, beef, chicken, eggs, whole milk, fortified milk, carrots, mango, orange fruits, sweet potato, spinach, kale, and other green vegetables are among foods rich in vitamin A.

Eating at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetable per day is recommended in order to provide a comprehensive distribution of carotenoids.

A variety of foods, such as breakfast cereals, pastries, breads, crackers, and cereal grain bars, are often fortified with 10-15% of the RDA for vitamin A.

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to reduce morbidity and to prevent complications.


Drug Category: Vitamins

Essential for normal DNA synthesis and metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. May also work as cofactors used in aerobic cellular respiration.

Drug Name Vitamin A (Del-Vi-A, Del-Vi-A)
Description Cofactor in many biochemical processes.
Adult Dose 3000 mcg (10,000 IU) PO qd
Severe disease: 60,000 mcg (200,000 IU) PO for at least 2 d
Pediatric Dose <3 years: 600 mcg (2000 IU) PO qd
4-8 years: 900 mcg (3000 IU) PO qd
9-13 years: 1700 mcg (5665 IU) PO qd
14-18 years: 2800 mcg (9335 IU) PO qd
Severe disease: 60,000 mcg (200,000 IU) PO for at least 2 d
Contraindications Documented hypersensitivity; hypervitaminosis A; pregnancy (if dose >800 mcg/d)
Interactions Cholestyramine, neomycin, and mineral oil may decrease absorption
Pregnancy A - Safe in pregnancy

Precautions Risk of teratogenicity increases in pregnant women at doses >800 mcg/d (not recommended); parenteral vitamin A in infants of low birth weight may be associated with thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, hepatomegaly, cholestasis, ascites, hypotension, and metabolic acidosis (E-Ferol syndrome)  (+ info)

Which disease is associated with alcohol abuse?


Which disease below (it is due to alcoholics becoming deficient in the B vitamin thiamin) is associated with alcohol abuse, produces mental confusion, staggering gate, and may actually destroy short-term memory?
A) Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
B) scurvy
C) pellagra
D) xerophthalmia
----------

  (+ info)

Are all of these things possible problems from being a vegetarian???


Kwashiorkor
Cachexia
Beriberi---(Thiamine Deficiency)
Ariboflavinosis
Pellagra---(Niacin Deficiency)
Bitot's Spots
Scurvy---(Vitamin C Deficiency)
Rickets---(Vitamin D Deficiency)
Osteomalacia
Goitre
Diabetes Mellitus
Osteoporosis---(Lack of Calcium)
Megaloblastic Anemia---(B12 Deficiency)
Xerophthalmia/Night Blindness---(Vitamin A Deficiency)
Zinc Deficiency (Growth Retardation)
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Loss of Hair
Loss of Muscle mass
Abnormal Accumulation of Fluid
Weakend Immune System
Lower Bone Mineral Density
Irregular Menstration in Women
Low Birth Weight in Women
Intestinal Discomfort
Lack of Pigment
Dry Skin
Developmental Abnormalities
----------

look at obese people and then ask yourself what health problems are possible.
Poor diet of ANY kind can cause issues.  (+ info)

Retinol acid eye-drops?


Do u know the name of any products of eye-drops which contain Retinol acid?

for treating xerophthalmia
----------

Retinol acid is used for treating wrinkles and sometimes acne (Retin-A) - definitely not something you want to put in your eyes. While dry eyes can be caused by a vitamin A deficiecny, you could try an over the counter lubrican drop for the dry eyes. Also consider eating a diet rich in vitamin A. Systane is good. It comes in preservative free vials also. I also like Optive, which is a little thicker than the Systane. Avoid products like Visine, Clear Eyes, and drops that "get the red out" - these drops contain vasodilators and will make your dry (& maybe red) eyes worse with prolonged use. If your dry eyes are really bad, you can try Soothe from Bausch & Lomb or Restasis, which is prescription only. As a last resort you could consider surgical options like punctal plugs.  (+ info)


Leave a message about 'Xerophthalmia'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.