FAQ - hypesthesia
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my doctor said I have hypesthesia from l-4 to s1 what does this mean?

have herniated l-5 s-i happenned a year ago had injections, chiro, and pysical therapy nothing helps r knee n below to ankle is numb, pain and cramps in both feet and legs...what does hypesthesia from l-4 to s-1 mean?

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Hi! Please give me a simple definition of the ff. words: dysesthesia,paresthesia,hypesthesia,hypalgesia.Thanks

and also for astereognosis,anagesia,anaesthesia. I need simple definitions only. Thank u very much.

Dysesthesia is pain not experienced by a normal nervous system.

Paresthesia or paraesthesia (paraesthesia in British English) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin with no apparent long-term physical effect, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles.

hypesthesia - impairment of tactile sensitivity; decrease of sensitivity

astereognosis - a loss of the ability to recognize objects by handling them

An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain and to achieve analgesia.

Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations.  (+ info)

Neurological exam: What does Cranial nerves 1-X11 are remarkable mean?

MOTOR SYSTEM: Reflexes are slightly diminshed in the upper and lower extremities, present at about 1+. SENSORY -There is also some hypesthesia noted in the left lower extremity in the distribution of L3-L4. There is no Babinski hypesthesia in distribution of the median nerve bilaterally?? What's this? Can someone explain exactly what this all means? Also, Conduction Studies-for the left peroneal(?), left posterior tibialis, left sural nerve & left sensory peroneal was done. Left peroneal nerve shows rather slow conduction at 40m/sec for the left peroneal & 41 m/sec for the left posterior tibialis nerve. Sural nerve potential was slightly increased at 5.2 msec, & left sensory peroneal was 6.1 msec. H reflex was present. EMG studies(ouch), of the left lower extremity shows significant abnormality in L5 innervated muscles including especially extensor digitorum on the left side. Both upper extrmities also shows neurogenic process affecting C5-C6. What's proximal latency?
What is proximal latency? Listal latency? Proximal latency? Right ulnar sensory potential was abnormal, measuring 5.1 msec. Left median sensory potential was very abnormal, measuring 5.1 msec, & left radial sensory potential was 2.7 msec. F wave for median & ulnar was 29,30. ??? What's early peripheral neuropathy? I have been in so much pain. I hope that someone can explain all of this clearly for me. Thank you.

Cranial nerves II-XII (#2 through #12) are unremarkable is what is dictated unless there is some difference in one or more of the cranial nerves, in which case something would be said about it.
Motor nerves are nerves that tell muscles what to do, hence motor. Slightly lessened reflexes in arms and legs.
Sensory nerves, which relay messages to the brain about what's going on in the body, indicate there is some over-sensitivity in the left leg in the area served by L3-4. Babinski reflex test was done, and there is no hyper-sensitivity in the area of the median nerves.
Conduction studies are done to tell the neurologist how well which nerves are sending messages to the muscles or to the brain. (There are efferent - outgoing- messages, and afferent - message going toward the brain.)
Distal is away from the center of the body, and proximal is near the center, as distal , the far end, and proximal is the nearer part.
The studies show some abnormalities, and the neurologist who did the testing will convey this to your doctor, and they'll discuss what is the best course of action to treat the problem.
It sounds like they're looking for the cause of a problem and finding abnormalities in the way the nerves work, so the next thing would be what's causing it, and what can we do about it. I wish you the best of luck in a very short time!
P.S. I believe latency and potential refer to nerve conduction velocity, speed, strength, something along that line.  (+ info)

Side-effects of marijuana...?

in comparison, here's a list of possible marijuana side-effects I found online, along with possible side-effects of a variety of popular pharmaceuticals

four questions follow:

without looking at the answers, which side-effects do you think are attributable to marijuana?

which side-effects do you think sound worst?


serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal, increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events. Abdominal pain, Diarrhea, Dispepsia, Flatulence, Nausea, Back pain, Peripheral, edema, Injury-accidental, Dizziness, Headache, Insomnia, Respiratory Pharyngitis, Rhinitis, Sinusitis, Upper respiratory tract infection, Rash.

anaphylactic reaction (including laryngeal edema), asthenia, face edema, pain
AUDITORY: sudden decrease or loss of hearing, tinnitus
CARDIOVASCULAR: angina pectoris, chest pain, hypertension, hypotension, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, palpitation, postural hypotension, syncope, tachycardia
DIGESTIVE: abdominal pain, abnormal liver function tests, diarrhea, dry mouth, dysphagia, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, GGTP increased, vomiting
MUSCULOSKELETAL: arthralgia, back pain, myalgia, neck pain
NERVOUS: hypertonia, hypesthesia, insomnia, paresthesia, somnolence, vertigo
RESPIRATORY: dyspnea, epistaxis, pharyngitis
SKIN AND APPENDAGES:photosensitivity reaction, pruritus, rash, sweating
OPHTHALMOLOGIC: abnormal vision, blurred vision, chromatopsia, changes in color vision, conjunctivitis (increased redness of the eye), dim vision, eye pain, glaucoma, photophobia, watery eyes
UROGENITAL: abnormal ejaculation, priapism (including prolonged or painful erections)

Trouble remembering things, Sleepiness, Anxiety, Paranoia, Altered time perception, Dry mouth, Nausea, Headache, Tremor, Decreased coordination, Increased heart rate, Altered pulmonary status, Altered body temperature, Reduced muscle strength, Decreased cerebral blood flow, Increased food consumption, Anxiety and panic, Paranoia, Confusion, Aggressiveness, Hallucinations, Sedation, Altered libido, Possible suicidal ideation, Depersonalization, Derealization, Poor sense of time, Worsened short-term memory, Addictive behaviors, Amotivational syndrome

arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia, prolongation of the conduction time leading to myocardial infarction and stroke, drowsiness, dry mouth, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, acid regurgitation, constipation, diarrhea, dizziness, nausea, irritability, mental acuity decreased, nervousness, upper respiratory infection, and pharyngitis. Syncope; malaise.

Cardiovascular: Tachycardia; arrhythmia; vasodilatation; palpitation; hypotension.

Digestive: Vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; gastrointestinal pain; gastritis; thirst; flatulence; edema of the tongue; abnormal liver function and rare reports of hepatitis, jaundice and cholestasis.

Hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis; angioedema; pruritus; facial edema; urticaria; rash.

Musculoskeletal: Local weakness.

Nervous System and Psychiatric: Seizures, ataxia; vertigo; dysarthria; tremors; hypertonia; convulsions; muscle twitching; disorientation; insomnia; depressed mood; abnormal sensations; anxiety; agitation; psychosis, abnormal thinking and dreaming; hallucinations; excitement; paresthesia; diplopia. Sweating, ageusia; tinnitus, urinary frequency and/or retention. Chest pain; edema. Hypertension; myocardial infarction; heart block; stroke. Paralytic ileus, tongue discoloration; stomatitis; parotid swelling. Inappropriate ADH syndrome. Purpura; bone marrow depression; leukopenia; eosinophilia; thrombocytopenia. Elevation and lowering of blood sugar levels; weight gain or loss. Myalgia. Decreased or increased libido; abnormal gait; delusions; aggressive behavior; paranoia; peripheral neuropathy; Bell's palsy; alteration in EEG patterns; extrapyramidal symptoms. Dyspnea. Photosensitization; alopecia. Impaired urination; dilatation of urinary tract; impotence; testicular swelling; gynecomastia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea.

Drowsiness; dry mouth; stomach pain ; tiredness; trouble sleeping. Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue; unusual hoarseness); dark urine; fainting; fast or irregular heartbeat; mental or mood changes; persistent fatigue; seizures; severe dizziness; unusual bruising or bleeding; yellowing of eyes or skin. headache, fatigue, and somnolence. dry mouth and nausea or vomiting. Pharyngitis, dyspepsia, and increased appetite. liver function abnormalities, acute hepatitis. wheezing, coughing, bronchitis, sinusitis

1) C

2) A  (+ info)

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