FAQ - iris neoplasms
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What is the connection between malignant neoplasms and crabs?

The more common term for malignant neoplasms, cancer, is Latin for crab, and the word "carcinogen," meaning a cancer-causing agent, comes from the Greek word for crab, "karkinos." What is the connection between these two seemingly unrelated things?

Cancer, both the disease and the astronomical constellation, derive from the Latin cancer or cancrum, meaning crab. The astrological sign, of course, is said to resemble a crab and the disease was so named by the ancient Greek physician Galen (129-200 A.D.) who noted the similarity between a certain type of tumor with a crab as well—the swollen veins around the tumor resembling the legs of a crab.

Old English adopted cancer directly from Latin and used it for a variety of spreading sores and ulcers. This early sense survives in the modern word canker. From c.1000 in a manuscript called Læce Boc (Leech Book), collected in Oswald Cockayne’s Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England, Vol. II, 1865:

Gemeng wið þam dustum, clæm on ðone cancer.
(Mix with the dust, smear on the cancer.)

And from Wyclif’s 2 Timothy, 1382:

The word of hem crepith as a kankir

The word was being applied specifically to the disease we today call cancer by the beginning of the 17th century. From Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Historie of the World:

Cancer is a swelling or sore comming of melancholy bloud, about which the veins appeare of a blacke or swert colour, spread in manner of a Creifish clees.

The astronomical sense of cancer is from the Latin name for the constellation of the crab. The name was known to the Anglo-Saxons, but only as a Latin name and was not assimilated into English until the Middle English period. It appears in Ælfric’s De Temporibus Anni, written c.993, in a list of the constellations of the Zodiac:

Feorða • Cancer • þæt is Crabba
(Fourth, Cancer, that is the crab.)

The Anglicized name appears c.1391 in Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe:

In this heved of cancer is the grettist declinacioun northward of the sonne...this signe of cancre is clepid the tropik of Somer.
(At this first point (head) of cancer is the greatest declination northward of the sun…this sign of cancer is named the tropic of summer.)

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)  (+ info)

What causes the iris of the eye to turn yellow?

My eyes are naturually ocean blue, i recently discoevered that the tops of the iris in each eye, more the left than right have turned yellow just above the pupil in normal state. Im not talking about the small yellow lines most ppl have, an actual part of the blue has turned yellow. i've tried to look everywhere to find out whats going on. i know it isnt jaundice because the white of my eyes are not effected. any help would be much appreciated. thanks, Mike.

There are several possible causes of iris color change. Inflammation inside the eye; loss of the some of the pigment
making it look yellow or dull; circulation changes to the iris like diabetes and cholesterol.

Any of these possible causes need to be examined by an eye doctor, Board Certified Optometrist or Ophthalmologist.

If it is a change that has happened recently, then you should get it checked soon.  (+ info)

What are the designs in the iris of the eye called?

In most people with lighter colored eyes you can see what looks like diamond shapes or fibers in the iris (the color part of the eye). What are these fibers or designs called and what are they. Also I heard that they can be caused by injuries. Sounds false?
Why do some people have more crypts then others?

The variations of the iris strands are called crypts.

EDIT: It is simply related to the fact that all people are different. There isn't anyone else in the world that looks like me. Likewise, there isn't anyone else in the world who has the same iris architecture as I do. Some security technology actually employs iris architecture analysis.  (+ info)

What could cause or be related to holes in the iris of the eye?

An eye doctor told me I have numerous microscopic holes in my iris. I'm going back in for more tests, but I can't find anything on the internet that sounds particularly linked to this.

Here is a link I have found that lists a few things that can cause this.
http://health.yahoo.com/other-other/essential-iris-atrophy/healthwise--nord129.html Hope that helps  (+ info)

How can you get contacts that do not show your iris from underneath?

I've noticed that with contacts people can see the actual colour of your eye because the pupil "hole" is big. How can you purchase contacts that cover your entire iris without showing the original colour. I've noticed Paris Hilton's contacts look very realistic because her real eye colour is never apparant. I never knew her eyes were dark brown until it was on the news.

try this site!
http://www.online.fantasyeyes.net/shopping/pgm-more_information.php?id=5&=SID#MOREINFO  (+ info)

What could a white spot on my iris be diagnosed as?

I have a small white spot on my iris that seems to have developed quite suddenly; i only noticed it this morning. I'm 16 years old so i doubt it has anything to do with aging. It's not affecting my vision or causing pain. If anyone has any ideas about what it could be I'd appreciate it.

Are you sure it is in the iris and not on the cornea over the iris?

The eye is not something to watch and wait. If you have a problem, you should get prompt medical attention.  (+ info)

What does a white spot on the iris mean?

Last night I felt like there was a piece of dust in my eye and I noticed redness. This morning i noticed a tiny pimple-like white spot on the surface of the iris. I do wear contact lenses. What could it be?

It means you should get to your eye doctor as soon as possible. Those white spots are usually the beginnings of corneal ulcers, which can be bad if not treated properly. Usual symptoms that accompany the spots are pain, redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, and feeling like there's something in your eye.

Typically, this comes from a few sources. Patients are sleeping in lenses they're not supposed to, keeping their lenses too long, not cleaning the properly (if at all), cleaning them with non-name brand solutions, work in dirty or dusty environments, or have bad allergies. Any one, or combination, of those will cause problems with your contacts.

So, I'd make an appointment with your optometrist as soon as you can. You need some prescription medication for that and maybe new contacts as well.  (+ info)

My right pupil is not centered with the iris. How can I correct this?

I noticed this recently when I take pictures. It seems like my pupil is more focused inward and not centered with the iris. Is this a problem, and can it be corrected?

Yeah, you should probably go to a doctor.
It probably can be corrected if you go to the Optical in time.

Good Luck [;  (+ info)

Would the iris color still be completely visible if the entire sclera was red with a popped blood vessel?

I'm writing a story and in one part a character's eye is completely red with a popped blood vessel.
If the whole sclera is red, does the iris change color as well?
For example, do blue eyes stay blue?

Definitely, the conjunctiva - where the superficial blood vessels lie - does not go over the cornea, so with a sub-conjunctival hemorrhage, all iris detail should be clear.  (+ info)

What is the basis of differing actions of antineoplastic agents on different tissue/neoplasms?

What is the basis for differing tissue- and neoplasm-specificites of antieoplastic chemotherapeutic agents? This doubt arose because considering what the pharmacokinetics of these drugs are it remains to be answered as to why a certain agent would act only in a particular tissue or neoplasm when the mechanisms they employ are so similar, e.g., various alkylating agents in spite having same action act of different tumors with differing degrees of effectiveness. Hope someone answers the question specifically. Useful links to free-text articles would also be highly appreciated. Bye. TC.

If you have thoughts on this subject, you ought to have the initiative to research it yourself.  (+ info)

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