FAQ - leukodystrophy, globoid cell
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What happens at the end stages of metachromatic leukodystrophy?

I am a new caregiver, and was curious what to expect at the end stage of this disease.

The symptoms of metachromatic leukodystrophy vary, depending on the age they develop and in degree of severity.

Because metachromatic leukodystrophy is relatively rare, and the symptoms mimic other diseases, patients with MLD may be misdiagnosed. Children may be diagnosed with cerebral palsy, deterioration in learning skills or behavioral disturbances. For people with late juvenile or adult MLD, early symptoms may mimic mental illness or psychiatric disorders.

There are four forms of MLD. The forms and their symptoms are:

Late Infantile
This is the most common form of metachromatic leukodystrophy. Symptoms appear at age 4 or younger and may include:

Loss of motor development milestones, such as losing the ability to walk or stand up
Problems walking (gait disturbances)
Behavioral changes, such as increased irritability or decreased attention span
Slurred speech and problems talking (speech disturbances)
Difficulty with feeding and swallowing
Loss of memory
Loss of vision
Seizures may be present
The loss of brain and body functions progresses fairly rapidly, with death usually occurring within five to 10 years from the time symptoms appear.

Early Juvenile
Symptoms appear between the ages of 4 to 6 and may include:

Problems walking (gait disturbances)
Loss of previously achieved physical and mental skills, such as developing incontinence (the child may not be able to control urination or bowel movements)
Behavioral changes, such as a decline in school performance
Decline in intellectual, or thinking, abilities
Muscle tremors, spasms or loss of muscle tone
Decreased attention span
Seizures may be present
Although this form of MLD progresses more slowly than the infantile form, death usually occurs within 10 to 20 years of symptoms appearing.

Late Juvenile and Adult
The initial symptoms of these forms of MLD are change in personality and behavior, leading to frequent misdiagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Symptoms appear in the late teens or older and may include:

Change in personality or behavior, such as a decline in performance at school or on the job
Behavior that is increasingly impulsive or uninhibited
Behavioral problems that may be diagnosed as mental illness, or psychiatric disorders
Problems walking (gait disturbances) and stiffness in the legs
Numbness, tingling and pain in the hands and feet
Progressive decline in intellectual (thinking) abilities
As the disease progresses, patients will lose the ability to perform daily living activities and need to be monitored continually, including feeding. Patients with these late-onset forms of MLD can have very slow progressive decline, lasting for decades. However, their life span is shortened due to the disease.  (+ info)

How harmful are cell phones to the brain and the human body?

You read about all the magnetic waves that cell phones radiate, and how it is bad for your body (especially your brain.) But what are the worst case scenarios for using a cell phone for a long period of time? Do you get cancer? Less intelligent?

Also, is it true that the lower the battery of the cell phone, the more radiation it emits?

One final question, is it harmful to keep your cell phone next to your testicles/penis (scientific terms I'm using)?


After years of observation and argument, nobody has come up with proof that cell phones are dangerous to health, but it is reasonable to limit the exposure in children, whose brains are still developing. They really don't need to be on the phone all the time anyway.

A low battery does not increase the radiation. However, the further you are from the base station, the greater the radiation. this is because the phone senses that reception is weak, and increases its own output to ensure good contact  (+ info)

How is cancer is more potent than a cell inflicted with a virus if they have similar characteristics?

A virus is foreign RNA enters the body and actually becomes part of the cell's DNA. Cancer is caused when the DNA of a cell becomes mutated one way or another and the cell will divide and replicate uncontrollably. Both "virused" and cancerous cells are cells with mutations in the DNA. To me, virus is just RNA that causes mutation from the outside whereas cancer is mutations that come from within. Where is the real difference between these two mutations, if not in potency and ability to damage the body?

Not all viruses are RNA viruses - but this is an intelligent question.
Most viruses insert a message that says "make more of me"
- - more viral particles.
The DNA damage of malignancies turns off the cellular control mechanisms that tell cells to stop dividing - so cells divide / reproduce without control as you say.
The differences is reproduction of cells vs reproduction of viral particles.

There are over 26,000 genes in the human genome.
Damage to each one has different consequences.
Nothing is simple in the human body, and it gets more complicated each year as brilliant researchers unravel the mechanisms of function associated with each gene.

There are some very smart people on this site who can explain this in much more elaborate detail if they see this question. Good question. You are thinking.
That's what I ask of my students first and foremost - think.

There are viruses associated with some human malignancies.
I think we will find more of these in the future.  (+ info)

How far should you keep your cell phone from your body when sleeping because of cell phone radiation?

When you are sleeping, how far should your cell phone be from your body? I am concerned about getting cancer so what is a good distance to keep it from my body?

"Cell phone radiation" does not induce cancer. If you get a lot of phone calls while you are asleep, it might be practical to place it on the bedside table.  (+ info)

What's the relationship between sickle cell disease and the sickle cell disease?

Also, why does a fever accompany the sickle cell disease?
Sorry, the title of the question should be What's the relationship between sickle cell disease and gallstones. :) thanks.

  (+ info)

What would happen to a cell if it continued to grow unchecked?

Generally, what does a cell do before it reaches this point?

Do you know?

it is called cancer  (+ info)

What is the oldest age you should be without a cell phone?

Im 16, and my parents STILL won't let me get a cell phone. How old do you think you should be when you definatley should get a cell phone

How old were you when you got a cell phone?

There's no maximum age. But as long as you live under your parents roof they can make that decision.

Your parents have their reasons and perhaps you can work something out with them. But I find it very typical of this generation to write something like "STILL" - as in how dare your parents not let you get a cell phone right now? Like it's coming to you and you should get one right away? Trust me kid, your parents could be doing a lot worse.

I got my first cell phone at 16 or 17. I paid for it myself and I agreed with my parents on a wide set of rules for using it. (ie. off during school hours)  (+ info)

What causes your white blood cell count to be low?

I went to the doctor a couple years ago for a physical and they said that african americans typically have a lower white blood cell count and that I should not worry. I am still curious as to why.

you should know that there is a range for the number of WBCs (8000 -12000) in this range for all people it is normal  (+ info)

How can I donate my wisdom teeth to stem cell research?

I am really interested in stem cell research and what it does and I may have my wisdom teeth pulled. To help, I want to donate my wisdom teeth which in Japan have been found to have stem cells. I've tried google and people have asked the same question but I can't figure out how to donate. Thanks!

Ask your dentist?

Get in touch with geneticist at a university?  (+ info)

What are the chances of my babies having sickle cell?

Back in 96' my grandfather died from sickle cell anemia,a genetic disease that is only found in the genes of African American people. When my mom found out she was pregnant with me, she was very scared that I would be sick because my dad's side carried the trait or gene. Luckily I am fine but I worry if I will carry the trait and my kids might have sickle cell since the trait can skip generations. I don't have any kids yet but I always wondered about if the chances of my child having it would be lessened if I had children with somebody outside of my race.
And please spare me the " you're just looking for a reason to marry outside of your race" or anything else ridiculous or rude. I simply asked a question. If you feel you can not answer it intelligently, then keep it moving please. In other words, skip this question.

Trying to remember my biology here (keep in mind it's been a couple years since I took it).

Everybody has two chromosomes for each gene (or vice versa, can't remember which). If your grandpa had it, your dad would at least be a carrier, since he would have gotten 1 sickle chrom. from his dad. If your dad didn't have it, I would say he is just a carrier (1 sickle chrom. & 1 non-sickle chrom.). It's really hard to say whether you're a carrier or not without knowing your mom's genes, but I'll give it a shot:

If your mom had sickle cell, you have 50% chance of getting sickle cell, and 50% chance of being a carrier.

If your mom was a carrier, you have 25% chance of getting sickle cell, 50% chance of being a carrier, and 25% chance of having no sickle cell chromosomes.

If you mom had no sickle chrom's, you have 50% chance of being a carrier, and 50% chance of not having sickle chrom's.

I hope you can find out your mom's genes and identify with one of the scenarios. Now, for the odds that your kids will have sickle (I'll try to cover all scenarios of you and your spouse):

Both parents sickle: kids will be sickle as well.
1 sickle + 1 carrier: 50% chance sickle, 50% chance carrier.
1 sickle + 1 non: 50% carrier, 50% non.
1 carrier + 1 carrier: 25% sickle, 50% carrier, 25% non.
1 carrier + 1 non: 50% carrier, 50% non.
1 non + 1 non: 100% non.

There, I think I got all of those probabilities right. I hope you can find your answer somewhere in there, LOL. Now watch, 30 people will have already answered in the time it took me to type that.

Edit: sorry, I thought it was your maternal grandpa that had it. I think it switched all of the gender pronouns, LOL.  (+ info)

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