FAQ - neoplasms, experimental
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What is the connection between malignant neoplasms and crabs?


The more common term for malignant neoplasms, cancer, is Latin for crab, and the word "carcinogen," meaning a cancer-causing agent, comes from the Greek word for crab, "karkinos." What is the connection between these two seemingly unrelated things?
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Cancer, both the disease and the astronomical constellation, derive from the Latin cancer or cancrum, meaning crab. The astrological sign, of course, is said to resemble a crab and the disease was so named by the ancient Greek physician Galen (129-200 A.D.) who noted the similarity between a certain type of tumor with a crab as well—the swollen veins around the tumor resembling the legs of a crab.

Old English adopted cancer directly from Latin and used it for a variety of spreading sores and ulcers. This early sense survives in the modern word canker. From c.1000 in a manuscript called Læce Boc (Leech Book), collected in Oswald Cockayne’s Leechdoms, Wortcunning, and Starcraft of Early England, Vol. II, 1865:

Gemeng wið þam dustum, clæm on ðone cancer.
(Mix with the dust, smear on the cancer.)

And from Wyclif’s 2 Timothy, 1382:

The word of hem crepith as a kankir

The word was being applied specifically to the disease we today call cancer by the beginning of the 17th century. From Philemon Holland’s translation of Pliny’s Historie of the World:

Cancer is a swelling or sore comming of melancholy bloud, about which the veins appeare of a blacke or swert colour, spread in manner of a Creifish clees.

The astronomical sense of cancer is from the Latin name for the constellation of the crab. The name was known to the Anglo-Saxons, but only as a Latin name and was not assimilated into English until the Middle English period. It appears in Ælfric’s De Temporibus Anni, written c.993, in a list of the constellations of the Zodiac:

Feorða • Cancer • þæt is Crabba
(Fourth, Cancer, that is the crab.)

The Anglicized name appears c.1391 in Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe:

In this heved of cancer is the grettist declinacioun northward of the sonne...this signe of cancre is clepid the tropik of Somer.
(At this first point (head) of cancer is the greatest declination northward of the sun…this sign of cancer is named the tropic of summer.)

(Source: Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition)  (+ info)

How are operational definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control?


How are operational definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control
groups, and random assignment used in designing an experiment?
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I'm guessing you have an assignment to do? You should be researching these things yourself, but I'll give you a brief overview.
In an experiment, the independent variable is the one you change. For example, if you were measuring the effect of alcohol on student grades, the level of alcohol would be the independent variable.
The dependent variable is the thing you are measuring. From the example above, this would be grades.
We assign participants into groups so that we can prove an effect is occurring. To do this, we compare the results of the control group (which has no experimental manipulation) to the experimental groups (in which the independent variable has been changed).
To make sure that the effect is due to the thing we are manipulating (in my example, alcohol level), and not some other variable we aren't testing (eg. intelligence), we randomly assign participants to groups.  (+ info)

What is the basis of differing actions of antineoplastic agents on different tissue/neoplasms?


What is the basis for differing tissue- and neoplasm-specificites of antieoplastic chemotherapeutic agents? This doubt arose because considering what the pharmacokinetics of these drugs are it remains to be answered as to why a certain agent would act only in a particular tissue or neoplasm when the mechanisms they employ are so similar, e.g., various alkylating agents in spite having same action act of different tumors with differing degrees of effectiveness. Hope someone answers the question specifically. Useful links to free-text articles would also be highly appreciated. Bye. TC.
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If you have thoughts on this subject, you ought to have the initiative to research it yourself.  (+ info)

Anyone been part of a experimental drug study?


I heard on the radio about being in a experimental drug study. Up to $2600 compensation, for 20 day stay in hospital. Has anyone done this or know someone that has? Any tips/warnings/etc would be appreciated.
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Not one that was sanctioned by the government!  (+ info)

Has it ever occurred to anyone taking experimental drugs that you may be a human guinea pig?


One must sign full responsibility when agreeing to take an experimental drug, this releases medical staff and pharmaceutical companies of all responsibility should a drug known to cause irreversible muscle damage, kidney, heart & liver failure, or any other problems. For those who have a weak immune system already (from an existing condition), isn’t this a huge risk? If our federal tax money pays for discovery why can’t it also pay for damages caused by the drugs?
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My guess is that most people that volunteer to take experimental drugs are so desperate for a cure or relief of an ailment they are suffering that they literally will try ANYTHING. That's the only reason I personally would do it.  (+ info)

i was recomended from my doctor to enter a study on an experimental drug for ulcerative colitis is this safe?


ok im 20 years old female, i was dignose with ulcerative colitis about two years ago. i went for a follow up visit with my doctor yesterday and he told me that he wanted me to join this study to see if the new drug they are trying will work for me to make my condition better. i have to give him a yes or no answer this friday. so i need some advice on if i should join this experimental study or not. so pls pls help me thank you.
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Show me a drug that actually cure something. I just don't like when doctors take the liberty to test drugs in their patients. You are sooooo young. I have children your age, and I will never let them to be an experiment in doctors office.
It has to be a better way. Natural remedies are safe, and helpful. I became a naturist when I could not take NO for an answer, from doctors. They told me few time, there is no cure, but I actually found a cure for my problems. So its up to you what you want to do. What I recommend you is to take Probiotic, to balance you bacteria from intestines. Aloe vera juice or capsules (get a good brand like, Herbalife)
http://www.regenerativenutrition.com/content.asp?id=164
http://drbenkim.com/articles-ulcerative-colitis-treatment.htm
Try to make even more searches, for natural remedies, you will learn a lot about your condition, I sometimes tel people, ...
The patient is it's best doctor. Remember one thing, you have to go to the root of the problem , not just treat the symptom
i hope you will take the right decision, and I wish you luck!!!!.  (+ info)

Any ideas for ingredients amounts for my experimental recipe?


I would like to try the following recipe:
Rice
Cream of mushroom soup (Campbells)
Chopped up mushrooms
Chicken

I want to put it all in a baking dish and bake in the oven to cook.

1. Should I put the chicken on top of the rice, then pour the soup over? Just put the chicken in raw? Or should I fry the chicken first?

2. If I use 1 cup of rice, then should I use 1 cup of water the can of soup? Or less water?

Any ideas before I try this recipe?? Thanks!!!
KF, awesome thanks.
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First, you'll always get better results, and a more tasty and pleasing appearance, if you brown the chicken first in a bit of butter or olive oil, as well as your mushrooms, and then set aside.

For one cup of rice, you do want at least two cups of liquid, and the soup concentrate, alone, would not be sufficient, and may be too thick. You'll get best results if you combine the soup, a little less than a can of water (you want it thicker than soup), and the uncooked cup of rice, together.

Spread the soup and rice mixture into a buttered casserole pan, and then place the browned chicken and mushrooms over top. Perhaps you'd like to top it with cheese or breadcrumbs as well.

Season as desired, and bake approximately 30-40 minutes, watching closely. Your oven temp, the amount of liquid you used, will all affect cooking time. Occasionally taste the rice mixture. If the rice is cooked through, you're all set.

There are a great many recipes for rice and chicken casserole online. I've linked you to just one, below.  (+ info)

How to get money for an experimental Cemo therapy?


I have a close family friend who is going through her 3rd battle with cancer and cemo is not working she is fighting with all her might and nothing seems to be working the doctor thinks that an experimental Cemo therapy might work but the price is outrageous and is like 100,000 a month how is someone going to be able to pay that insurance will not pay if any one has any ideas please, please let me know thanks
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here is a site to check out they have trials and you don't have to pay for them  (+ info)

What is the experimental treatment Patrick Swaze has undergone for the pancreatic cancer?


So, I've insitgated a disagreement without anyone knowing what this treatment is?
Sorry...instigated.
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It's very true that people die from chemo....one of the major "side effects" of long term chemo and radiation is....cancer!!! I do agree that it has saved lives and unfortunately it's the only thing the medical system has right now. The bad thing about chemo is that it kills your immune system and you need that immune system to fight cancer...which is why cancer very often comes back (probably was always there) after people are "cured". We need to shift our focus to working on helping people's immune systems to be able to fight cancer off in the first place.  (+ info)

Is there a job title for someone who works with and administers experimental drugs?


Does anyone know the title and how to get into that field?
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You basically would have to get an advanced degree in medicine, biochemistry, chemical engineering, etc. Then you could work at a teaching hospital or become a professor at a university and apply for research grants. The other option (also requires and advanced degree) is to get a job as a scientist for a pharmaceutical or biotech company. Sorry I don't have a more specific answer.

EDIT:
I re-read your question, and it appears you aren't really asking about how to research and study new drugs, but rather just the one that actually administers them? I don't really know how you get into that. I would guess that pharmaceutical companies hire nurses to administer the drug during clinical testing.  (+ info)

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