FAQ - streptococcal infections
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Why doesn't an injection of streptokinase cause a streptococcal infection?

The bacterial enzyme streptokinase is used to digest fibrin (blood clots) in patients with athersclerosis. Why doesn't injection of streptokinase cause a streptococcal infection? How do we know the streptokinase will digest fibrin only and not good tissue?

I'm pretty sure those are two different bacteria. A streptococcal infection is caused by streptococcus.  (+ info)

What causes streptococcal infection in the throught?

also is it contagios.? Like will i have given it to ang guys i have kissed coz i have kissed some guys when a sore throught and didnt know what it was and im just back from the doctors? x

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How does skin infectios and tonsilitis/pharyngitis lead to post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis?

Tonsilitis/pharyngitis and skin infection caused by streptococcus pyogenes. How did the microorganism travel from the throat/skin to the kidneys and cause the disease?

Untreated Strep throat can cause post-strep glomerulonephritis. Signs and symptoms usually begin 3 weeks after your sore throat. As far as your skin is concerned, you always have bacteria on it. Touch and and then fingers go in the mouth unknowingly. Untreated Strep can also cause rheumatic heart disease.. I had post strep throat glomerulonephritis twice while in I was in nursing school. Unfortuately, it kept me back a year. That was over 30 years ago. I don't know is there is now a strep kit on the market without a prescription, but there should be so people know whether or not they have strep and should be treated. So many sore throats are caused by viruses. When I was younger I had sore throats several times a year. If I ran to the doctor everytime I had a sore throat, I'd have been there all the time. I do know that there is a quick strep test available in a doctors office. 10 years ago, I finally had my tonsils removed. I haven't had a sore throat since. Unfortuantely, untreated strep can cause glomeruolnephritis and rheumatic heart disease.  (+ info)

Can a streptococcal B infection that went into septic shock cause brain damage in a teenage boy?

If the infection spread to the brain causing meningitis or encephalitis there can be residual brain damage. Also if the sepsis caused hypotension and decreased blood flow to the brain (anoxia) it can cause brain damage.  (+ info)

How does a child contract scarlet fever (a streptococcal infection)? Would flies carry this bacteria?

Streptococcus and other bacteria are present on the skin or noses and from time to time the local conditions may just favor the bacteria and this may lead to various infection. I know flies are notorious for visiting all sort of places, but they play little part in spread of scarlet fever.  (+ info)

About how long does it take for streptococcal pharyngitis to grow?

About how long does it take for streptococcal pharyngitis to grow on agar in Petri dishes? I have a science project and I need the procedure done tonight... and I need to know about how long of time I should set aside for it to grow? The strep throat virus.

About 24 hours to 48 hours - (depending upon the agar plate, growh medium, temparature, etc.).
An agar plate is a sterile Petri dish that contains a growth medium used to microbiological culture microorganisms or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens....

Streptococcus is a genus of sphere Gram-positive bacterium belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the lactic acid bacteria group. Cell division occurs along a single Coordinate axis in these bacteria, .

Gram-positive Bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. This is in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which cannot retain the crystal violet stain, instead taking up the counterstain and appearing red or pink....

S. pyogenes typically produces large zones of beta-hemolysis
Hemolysis - Hemolysis is the breakdown of red blood cells. The ability of bacterial colonies to induce hemolysis when grown on blood agar is used to classify certain microorganisms....

S. pyogenes is the cause of many important human diseases ranging from mild superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic diseases. Infections typically begin in the throat or skin. Examples of mild S. pyogenes infections include pharyngitisPharyngitis
Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the throat or pharynx. In most cases it is painful, and thus is often referred to as a sore throat. Inflammation of the tonsils and/or larynx occur simultaneously, which can make eating difficult or painful....
("strep throat") and localized skin infection ("impetigoImpetigo
Impetigo is a superficial bacterial skin infection most common among children 2 to 6 years old. People who play close contact sports such as rugby football, American football and wrestling are also susceptible, regardless of age....
"). ErysipelasErysipelas
Erysipelas is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of the dermis, resulting in inflammation and characteristically extending into underlying fat tissue....
and cellulitisCellulitis
Cellulitis is a diffuse infection of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin. Cellulitis can be caused by normal skin Flora or by exogenous bacteria, and often occurs where the skin has previously been broken: cracks in the skin, cuts, blisters, burn , insect bites, surgical wounds, or sites o...
are characterized by multiplication and lateral spread of S. pyogenes in deep layers of the skin. S. pyogenes invasion and multiplication in the fasciaFascia
Fascia , pl. fas?ci?ae , adj. fascial is the soft tissue component of the connective tissue system that permeates the human body....
can lead to necrotizing fasciitisNecrotizing fasciitis
Necrotizing fasciitis , commonly known as flesh-eating disease or flesh-eating bacteria, is a Rare disease infection of the deeper layers of skin and Subcutiss, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue....
, a potentially life-threatening condition requiring surgical treatment.  (+ info)

what is the investigation for streptococcal pharyngitis?

I've read in the book that if i suspect streptococcal pharyngitis i should do the investigation for the patient. what is this investigation, and is it used in todays practice?!
because i remember when i was sick and i had sore throat, i went to GP and he prescribed me amoxicillin just by history and examination with no any other investigation.

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What are some ways of preventing infections in wrestling?

I am a 15 year old freshman girl and i am going to join my high school's coed wrestling team next year. I know that if you wrestle you can get certain infections.

1.) I want to know what are some of the different infections.

2.) Also I want to know how I can prevent myself from getting these infections.

3.) Why do wrestlers get these infections?

Thanks to anyone who can help!

good luck, wrestling is a tough sport.

1. The most common form of infection is ring worm. Then there are rare cases of herpes and impetigo. Those last two are rare. After 10 years of wrestling I knew maybe 6 total people to get either of those.
2. The best way of preventing those kinds if infections is to shower 2-3 times a day. I would shower in the morning, right after practice, and at night. ALSO check to make sure your wrestling coach is mopping the mats EVERY DAY before practice (or getting one of the wrestlers to do it). You will see more cases of these infections on unclean mats.
3. Wrestlers get these infections bc of the main reason above... not washing the mats and not washing their bodies. Basically a mat room can reach temperatures over 100 degrees, there is a lot of sweat, people are sweating on each other, and sometimes you get those certain people that dont shower too often so they can infect others.
-Again I wouldnt worry about it. Ringworm goes away after a couple weeks of putting tinactin or lotrimin on it and it doesnt itch or anything. Just keep your body clean and make sure you are showering w anti-bacterial soap.

Good Luck  (+ info)

What kind of cervical infections are common during pregnancy?

I had an emergency doctor's visit today to figure out why I'd been spotting off and on and he mentioned that he thinks it is a cervical infection. I was just wondering what kind of cervical infections there are and how dangerous they are.

Here's an article for more information about the various cervical infections during pregnancy and what to do:
Bleeding during pregnancy: Why it happens, what to do
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy has many causes. Some are serious, and some aren't. Know when to contact your health care provider.
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy can be scary. It's not always a sign of trouble, however. In fact, most women who experience vaginal bleeding during pregnancy — particularly during the first trimester — go on to deliver healthy babies. By understanding the most common causes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, you'll know what to look for and when to contact your health care provider.
Bleeding during the first trimester
Many women experience light vaginal bleeding during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Possible causes of vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy include:
Implantation. You may notice a small amount of vaginal bleeding very early in pregnancy, about 10 to 14 days after fertilization. This "implantation bleeding" happens when the fertilized egg attaches to the lining of your uterus. It's usually earlier, spottier and lighter in color than a normal menstrual period, and it doesn't last long. Some women mistake this light bleeding for a period and don't realize they're pregnant.
Cervical changes. When you're pregnant, more blood flows to your cervix. You may experience harmless vaginal bleeding after contact to your cervix, such as after sex or a pelvic exam.
Miscarriage. Up to 15 percent of known pregnancies end in miscarriage, according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Vaginal bleeding is the primary sign of miscarriage. But bleeding doesn't necessarily mean you're having a miscarriage. Remember, most women who experience vaginal bleeding during pregnancy go on to deliver healthy babies.
Ectopic pregnancy. Sometimes an embryo implants somewhere outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube. This is known as an ectopic pregnancy. An embryo implanted outside the uterus can't survive. And without treatment, life-threatening blood loss is possible. In addition to vaginal bleeding, an ectopic pregnancy may cause abdominal or pelvic pain.
Molar pregnancy. Rarely, an abnormal mass — instead of a baby — forms inside the uterus after fertilization. Vaginal bleeding is the most common sign of a molar pregnancy.
Infection. Some cervical infections cause bleeding in early pregnancy.
When to contact your health care provider
During the first trimester, if you have slight vaginal bleeding that goes away within a day, tell your health care provider at your next visit. If you have any vaginal bleeding that lasts more than a day, contact your health care provider within the next 24 hours. Contact him or her immediately if you:
Experience moderate to heavy vaginal bleeding
Experience any amount of vaginal bleeding accompanied by abdominal pain, cramping, fever or chills
Pass tissue from your vagina
What to expect next
Your health care provider will likely ask questions about the bleeding and do a physical exam, including a pelvic exam. Depending on the severity of your symptoms, your health care provider may do lab tests or an ultrasound to assess your baby's well-being.
Typically, vaginal bleeding during the first trimester doesn't require treatment. Sometimes, however, your health care provider may recommend resting until the bleeding subsides. If you have a cervical infection, you may be given antibiotics.
If your health care provider diagnoses a miscarriage, you may choose to let it progress naturally or speed the process with medication or a minor surgical procedure known as dilation and curettage (D and C). During this procedure, the doctor dilates your cervix and gently suctions the tissue out of your uterus. Sometimes a long metal instrument with a loop on the end (curet) is used after the suction to scrape the uterine walls.
If you have an ectopic or molar pregnancy, you'll need prompt treatment. Sometimes an ectopic pregnancy can be treated with medication. In other cases, surgery is needed. With a molar pregnancy, a D and C is needed to remove the tumor from the uterus.
Bleeding during the second or third trimester
As the cervix begins to thin out and relax in preparation for labor, the thick plug of mucus that seals the opening of the cervix is dislodged. When this happens, you may notice a thick or stringy discharge that may be tinged with blood. This "bloody show" is a normal sign of impending labor that may occur up to a week or two before delivery.
A bloody show near the end of pregnancy isn't cause for concern. But other causes of bleeding during the second or third trimester are more worrisome, including:
Miscarriage. Vaginal bleeding is the primary sign of miscarriage. Although miscarriage is most common during the first trimester, a risk still exists in the second trimester.
Preterm labor. Light bleeding in the second or third trimester may be a sign of preterm labor, especially when accompanied by regular contractions, dull backache or pelvic pressure.
Problems with the cervix. A cervical infection, inflamed cervix or growths on the cervix may cause vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester. Occasionally, light bleeding may be a sign that the cervix is opening prematurely (cervical incompetence). This can lead to preterm birth.
Placenta previa. Painless, bright red vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester may indicate placenta previa — a serious problem in which the placenta partly or completely covers the opening to the birth canal. The bleeding may stop at some point, but it nearly always recurs days or weeks later.
Placental abruption. Rarely, the placenta begins to separate from the inner wall of the uterus before birth. This may cause bleeding that's scant, heavy or somewhere in between. The bleeding is usually accompanied by abdominal pain.
Uterine rupture. Rarely, the uterus tears open along the scar line from a prior C-section. This may cause vaginal bleeding, intense abdominal pain and abdominal tenderness. If your uterus ruptures — either before or during labor — an emergency C-section is needed to prevent life-threatening complications.
When to contact your health care provider
Contact your health care provider if you have any amount of vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester. You'll likely need an exam in the doctor's office or hospital. Seek immediate care if you have vaginal bleeding accompanied by:
What to expect next
To determine what's causing the bleeding, your health care provider will likely do an ultrasound and a vaginal exam. Monitors may be used to detect contractions and track your baby's heart rate. If you've lost a significant amount of blood, you may need intravenous fluids or a blood transfusion. Your health care provider will closely monitor your baby for signs of distress.
Depending on the cause of the bleeding and various other factors, treatment may include bed rest or medication. If you have a cervical infection, you may be given antibiotics. In some cases, an emergency C-section may be recommended.
Details are key to diagnosis
If you experience vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, don't be shy about explaining your symptoms. Describe how much blood you passed, what it looked like, and whether it included any clots or tissue. If you use pads to soak up the blood, keep track of how many. All this information can help your health care provider determine if the bleeding is a normal part of pregnancy or something more serious — and what to do next.
If you need further information go straight to the website listed below.
Good Luck to you.
mom of 3 and 4th in 7 days at age 41  (+ info)

What happened when people got infections before antibiotics?

I used to get outer ear infections. I don't think they'd ever go away if I didn't have antibiotics; however, I cured one by myself once by putting alcohol in my ear. However, other infections aren't so simple. What if someone got a cut on their finger and it got infected before antibiotics? Would it ever go away, or would people die, etc?

Have you ever been to an "old graveyard" and noticed the ages of people when they died? They died in their 30s, 40s, the 60s was really really old. A lot of these people died with infections such as pneumonia. Many had wounds that would not heal also. However, there were many remedies that worked a little any way. Ginger root on the chest for coughing, barley in tea for infections of the skin, etc... The main problem with infection is spreading into the blood and then to other organs and cells. This is when you become septic and generally, without antibiotics, you will die. All medication comes from somewhere and a lot of healing meds that we use today come from plants. However, in the mass production of concentration in the medications, the meds of today work a whole lot better, as we can detect with the average age to live today is the middle 80s.  (+ info)

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