Why impaired chemotaxis reduces the number of Vibrio cholerae cells required for a successfull infection?
There was an article about Vibrio cholerae, which cause cholerae, are unable to direct their swimming towards nutritional cues (chemotaxis). They linked this to reduced expression of cheW-1. It said it is remained unclear, however, why impaired chemotaxis reduces the number of V.cholerae cells required for a successful infection.
What do you guys think?
I cannot find a reference as to the required load of any Vibrio to cause an infection. Also I understand chemotaxis as being the ability to direct movement in their environment either to nutrition or away from harm.
Vibrio cholerae require sodium chloride for growth which is readily available in the body, so nutrition isn't a problem. So if there was impaired chemotaxis that could mean that a smaller number of organisms would survive entry into the body but the ones that do survive and reproduce would be pretty hardy and hard to kill.
That is my best thoughts. Perhaps it is like natural selection, adaptation to their environment where it is survival of fittest which make them hardier. (+ info
How does Vibrio cholerae invade the human body and what system does it affect?
any information you could give me on Vibrio cholerae is appreciated, thanks
Go to the following website and it should answer any questions you have on the subject.
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~mow/chap7.html (+ info
Explain why Vibrio cholera can live in human intestines, shell fish, independently in water and marine animals?
Explain why Vibrio cholera can live in human intestines, shell fish, independently in water and marine animals.
Many bacteria, including the vibrios, have the ability to live in diverse habitats. Vibrio cholerae is a marine bacterium that normally lives in seawater and brackish water and marine sediment and in or on marine animals and plants. If it gains access to humans via drinking water or eating raw or undercooked seafood or via an open wound, it can cause gastroenteritis or cholera and wound infections. (+ info
What are some ways of preventing infections in wrestling?
I am a 15 year old freshman girl and i am going to join my high school's coed wrestling team next year. I know that if you wrestle you can get certain infections.
1.) I want to know what are some of the different infections.
2.) Also I want to know how I can prevent myself from getting these infections.
3.) Why do wrestlers get these infections?
Thanks to anyone who can help!
good luck, wrestling is a tough sport.
1. The most common form of infection is ring worm. Then there are rare cases of herpes and impetigo. Those last two are rare. After 10 years of wrestling I knew maybe 6 total people to get either of those.
2. The best way of preventing those kinds if infections is to shower 2-3 times a day. I would shower in the morning, right after practice, and at night. ALSO check to make sure your wrestling coach is mopping the mats EVERY DAY before practice (or getting one of the wrestlers to do it). You will see more cases of these infections on unclean mats.
3. Wrestlers get these infections bc of the main reason above... not washing the mats and not washing their bodies. Basically a mat room can reach temperatures over 100 degrees, there is a lot of sweat, people are sweating on each other, and sometimes you get those certain people that dont shower too often so they can infect others.
-Again I wouldnt worry about it. Ringworm goes away after a couple weeks of putting tinactin or lotrimin on it and it doesnt itch or anything. Just keep your body clean and make sure you are showering w anti-bacterial soap.
Good Luck (+ info
What kind of cervical infections are common during pregnancy?
I had an emergency doctor's visit today to figure out why I'd been spotting off and on and he mentioned that he thinks it is a cervical infection. I was just wondering what kind of cervical infections there are and how dangerous they are.
Here's an article for more information about the various cervical infections during pregnancy and what to do:
Bleeding during pregnancy: Why it happens, what to do
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy has many causes. Some are serious, and some aren't. Know when to contact your health care provider.
Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy can be scary. It's not always a sign of trouble, however. In fact, most women who experience vaginal bleeding during pregnancy — particularly during the first trimester — go on to deliver healthy babies. By understanding the most common causes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, you'll know what to look for and when to contact your health care provider.
Bleeding during the first trimester
Many women experience light vaginal bleeding during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Possible causes of vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy include:
Implantation. You may notice a small amount of vaginal bleeding very early in pregnancy, about 10 to 14 days after fertilization. This "implantation bleeding" happens when the fertilized egg attaches to the lining of your uterus. It's usually earlier, spottier and lighter in color than a normal menstrual period, and it doesn't last long. Some women mistake this light bleeding for a period and don't realize they're pregnant.
Cervical changes. When you're pregnant, more blood flows to your cervix. You may experience harmless vaginal bleeding after contact to your cervix, such as after sex or a pelvic exam.
Miscarriage. Up to 15 percent of known pregnancies end in miscarriage, according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Vaginal bleeding is the primary sign of miscarriage. But bleeding doesn't necessarily mean you're having a miscarriage. Remember, most women who experience vaginal bleeding during pregnancy go on to deliver healthy babies.
Ectopic pregnancy. Sometimes an embryo implants somewhere outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube. This is known as an ectopic pregnancy. An embryo implanted outside the uterus can't survive. And without treatment, life-threatening blood loss is possible. In addition to vaginal bleeding, an ectopic pregnancy may cause abdominal or pelvic pain.
Molar pregnancy. Rarely, an abnormal mass — instead of a baby — forms inside the uterus after fertilization. Vaginal bleeding is the most common sign of a molar pregnancy.
Infection. Some cervical infections cause bleeding in early pregnancy.
When to contact your health care provider
During the first trimester, if you have slight vaginal bleeding that goes away within a day, tell your health care provider at your next visit. If you have any vaginal bleeding that lasts more than a day, contact your health care provider within the next 24 hours. Contact him or her immediately if you:
Experience moderate to heavy vaginal bleeding
Experience any amount of vaginal bleeding accompanied by abdominal pain, cramping, fever or chills
Pass tissue from your vagina
What to expect next
Your health care provider will likely ask questions about the bleeding and do a physical exam, including a pelvic exam. Depending on the severity of your symptoms, your health care provider may do lab tests or an ultrasound to assess your baby's well-being.
Typically, vaginal bleeding during the first trimester doesn't require treatment. Sometimes, however, your health care provider may recommend resting until the bleeding subsides. If you have a cervical infection, you may be given antibiotics.
If your health care provider diagnoses a miscarriage, you may choose to let it progress naturally or speed the process with medication or a minor surgical procedure known as dilation and curettage (D and C). During this procedure, the doctor dilates your cervix and gently suctions the tissue out of your uterus. Sometimes a long metal instrument with a loop on the end (curet) is used after the suction to scrape the uterine walls.
If you have an ectopic or molar pregnancy, you'll need prompt treatment. Sometimes an ectopic pregnancy can be treated with medication. In other cases, surgery is needed. With a molar pregnancy, a D and C is needed to remove the tumor from the uterus.
Bleeding during the second or third trimester
As the cervix begins to thin out and relax in preparation for labor, the thick plug of mucus that seals the opening of the cervix is dislodged. When this happens, you may notice a thick or stringy discharge that may be tinged with blood. This "bloody show" is a normal sign of impending labor that may occur up to a week or two before delivery.
A bloody show near the end of pregnancy isn't cause for concern. But other causes of bleeding during the second or third trimester are more worrisome, including:
Miscarriage. Vaginal bleeding is the primary sign of miscarriage. Although miscarriage is most common during the first trimester, a risk still exists in the second trimester.
Preterm labor. Light bleeding in the second or third trimester may be a sign of preterm labor, especially when accompanied by regular contractions, dull backache or pelvic pressure.
Problems with the cervix. A cervical infection, inflamed cervix or growths on the cervix may cause vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester. Occasionally, light bleeding may be a sign that the cervix is opening prematurely (cervical incompetence). This can lead to preterm birth.
Placenta previa. Painless, bright red vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester may indicate placenta previa — a serious problem in which the placenta partly or completely covers the opening to the birth canal. The bleeding may stop at some point, but it nearly always recurs days or weeks later.
Placental abruption. Rarely, the placenta begins to separate from the inner wall of the uterus before birth. This may cause bleeding that's scant, heavy or somewhere in between. The bleeding is usually accompanied by abdominal pain.
Uterine rupture. Rarely, the uterus tears open along the scar line from a prior C-section. This may cause vaginal bleeding, intense abdominal pain and abdominal tenderness. If your uterus ruptures — either before or during labor — an emergency C-section is needed to prevent life-threatening complications.
When to contact your health care provider
Contact your health care provider if you have any amount of vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester. You'll likely need an exam in the doctor's office or hospital. Seek immediate care if you have vaginal bleeding accompanied by:
What to expect next
To determine what's causing the bleeding, your health care provider will likely do an ultrasound and a vaginal exam. Monitors may be used to detect contractions and track your baby's heart rate. If you've lost a significant amount of blood, you may need intravenous fluids or a blood transfusion. Your health care provider will closely monitor your baby for signs of distress.
Depending on the cause of the bleeding and various other factors, treatment may include bed rest or medication. If you have a cervical infection, you may be given antibiotics. In some cases, an emergency C-section may be recommended.
Details are key to diagnosis
If you experience vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, don't be shy about explaining your symptoms. Describe how much blood you passed, what it looked like, and whether it included any clots or tissue. If you use pads to soak up the blood, keep track of how many. All this information can help your health care provider determine if the bleeding is a normal part of pregnancy or something more serious — and what to do next.
If you need further information go straight to the website listed below.
Good Luck to you.
mom of 3 and 4th in 7 days at age 41 (+ info
What happened when people got infections before antibiotics?
I used to get outer ear infections. I don't think they'd ever go away if I didn't have antibiotics; however, I cured one by myself once by putting alcohol in my ear. However, other infections aren't so simple. What if someone got a cut on their finger and it got infected before antibiotics? Would it ever go away, or would people die, etc?
Have you ever been to an "old graveyard" and noticed the ages of people when they died? They died in their 30s, 40s, the 60s was really really old. A lot of these people died with infections such as pneumonia. Many had wounds that would not heal also. However, there were many remedies that worked a little any way. Ginger root on the chest for coughing, barley in tea for infections of the skin, etc... The main problem with infection is spreading into the blood and then to other organs and cells. This is when you become septic and generally, without antibiotics, you will die. All medication comes from somewhere and a lot of healing meds that we use today come from plants. However, in the mass production of concentration in the medications, the meds of today work a whole lot better, as we can detect with the average age to live today is the middle 80s. (+ info
How can I stop getting infections and viruses due to bodybuilding?
I've recently started heavy weight training sessions in the gym but keep getting infections like flu and chest infections.
My weight training sessions are intense and I also do intense interval cardio on alternate days. My goal is weight gain and big muscles.
What can I take to help keep my immune system strong?
I would scrutinize your supplements or diet, something isn't right. Do you eat sugar? If so stop. Use hand sanitizer at the gym.
I highly recommend taking liberal amounts of EsterC & marine betacarotene (algae - spirulina or dunaliella) taken 3x day for 6 weeks to build up your immune system, you can then take once or twice a day thereafter for maintenance. (+ info
Any home remedy to an ear infections that someone might recommend?
Every 6 months or so I get an ear infection and I can't keep going to the doctor as I don't have health insurance. This started happening after moving to a different climate and until I am able to move somewhere else I need some home remedies to help me get rid of ear infections when they pop up. PLEASE help me with this as it is getting very old to have to go to the doctor for such a thing every 6 months. Thanks a lot!
Here you go I found this site it has alot of different home remedies for ear infection, and earaches. Hope that helps!!!!
What kind of infections can a virgin get?
I'm terrified of getting an infection. I'm staying a virgin foreverrrr to avoid them BUT what other possible infections can I get down there that aren't stds.
Besides yeast infection, I already know.
Besides a yeast infection, you can get a bacterial infection without having sex.
Different types of infections:
Signs of yeast infections:
White, cottage cheese-like discharge
Swelling and pain around the vulva
Signs of bacterial vaginosis:
A white, gray or yellowish vaginal discharge
A fishy odor that is strongest after sex or after washing with soap
Itching or burning
Slight redness and swelling of the vagina or vulva
Signs of trichomoniasis
A watery, yellowish or greenish bubbly discharge
An unpleasant odor
Pain and itching when urinating
Most apparent after your period
(there is some discussion about getting it from remaining in a wet bathing suit) (+ info
How many women have experienced urinary, and kindey infections after hysterectomy?
Please explain your situation after surgery. I have had kidney infections six months after a hysterectomy. I have been on anti biotics ever since. This has gone on for two years. Doctors don't know why. Has anyone gotten better? Has any one gotten healed from uti's and kidney infections? If so how?
Well my mom had this surgeory on November 13, 2008 and after she had it she got a urinary tract infection, she had it for a couple months but the doctors gave her antibiotics and it took a while for her to get better but she did (+ info
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