CNS infections caused by neurotropic dematiaceous fungi that contain melanin in their cell walls. The infections often result in brain abscess; encephalitis; and meningitis in patients who are often immunocompetent. The common causative fungi include members Cladophialophora bantiana, exophiala dermatitidis, Rhinocladiella mackenziei, and Ochroconis gallopavum. R. mackenziei infection is seen almost exclusively in patients from the middle east.

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