A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase or less frequently by reduced activity of dihydropteridine reductase (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; seizures; skin hypopigmentation; eczema; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of neurology, 6th ed, p952).

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